curl(1)                    Curl Manual                    curl(1)

       curl  -  get  a  URL with FTP, TELNET, LDAP, GOPHER, DICT,
       FILE, HTTP or HTTPS syntax.

       curl [options] url

       curl is a client  to  get  documents/files  from  servers,
       using  any  of  the  supported  protocols.  The command is
       designed to work without user interaction or any  kind  of

       curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support,
       user authentication, ftp upload, HTTP post,  SSL  (https:)
       connections, cookies, file transfer resume and more.

       The  URL  syntax  is  protocol  dependent.  You'll  find a
       detailed description in RFC 2396.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs by  writing
       part sets within braces as in:


       or  you  can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using
       [] as in:[1-100].txt[001-100].txt    (with lead-
       ing zeros)[a-z].txt

       It  is  possible  to  specify up to 9 sets or series for a
       URL, but no nesting is supported at the moment:[1996-1999]/vol-

              (FTP)  When  used  in  a ftp upload, this will tell
              curl to append to the target file instead of  over-
              writing  it.  If the file doesn't exist, it will be

       -A/--user-agent <agent string>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the
              HTTP  server.  Some badly done CGIs fail if its not
              set to "Mozilla/4.0".   To  encode  blanks  in  the
              string,  surround  the  string  with  single  quote
              marks.  This can also be set with  the  -H/--header
              flag of course.

       -b/--cookie <name=data>
              (HTTP)  Pass  the  data  to  the  HTTP  server as a
              cookie.  It  is  supposedly  the  data   previously
              received  from  the server in a "Set-Cookie:" line.
              The data should be  in  the  format  "NAME1=VALUE1;

              If no '=' letter is used in the line, it is treated
              as a filename to  use  to  read  previously  stored
              cookie  lines  from,  which  should be used in this
              session if they match. Using this method also acti-
              vates  the  "cookie awareness" which will make curl
              record incoming cookies too, which may be handy  if
              you're   using   this   in   combination  with  the
              -L/--location option. The file format of  the  file
              to  read  cookies from should be plain HTTP headers
              or the netscape cookie file format.

              (FTP/LDAP) Use ASCII transfer when getting  an  FTP
              file  or  LDAP  info.  For  FTP,  this  can also be
              enforced by using an URL that ends with  ";type=A".

              Continue/Resume  a  previous  file  transfer.  This
              instructs curl to continue appending  data  on  the
              file where it was previously left, possibly because
              of a broken connection to the server. There must be
              a  named  physical  file  to  append to for this to
              work.  Note: Upload resume is depening on a command
              named  SIZE  not always present in all ftp servers!
              Upload resume is for FTP only.  HTTP resume is only
              possible with HTTP/1.1 or later servers.

       -C/--continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume  a  previous  file  transfer at the
              given offset. The given offset is the exact  number
              of  bytes  that  will  be  skipped counted from the
              beginning of the source file before  it  is  trans-
              fered  to  the  destination.  If used with uploads,
              the ftp server command SIZE will  not  be  used  by
              curl.  Upload  resume is for FTP only.  HTTP resume
              is only possible with HTTP/1.1 or later servers.

       -d/--data <data>
              (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a  POST  request
              to  the  HTTP  server.  Note  that the data is sent
              exactly as specified with no extra processing.  The
              data  is  expected  to  be "url-encoded". This will
              cause curl to pass the data to the server using the
              content-type     application/x-www-form-urlencoded.
              Compare to -F.

              If you start the data with the letter @,  the  rest
              should  be  a file name to read the data from, or -
              if you want curl to read the data from stdin.   The
              contents of the file must already be url-encoded.

       -D/--dump-header <file>
              (HTTP/FTP)  Write  the  HTTP  headers to this file.
              Write the FTP file info to this file  if  -I/--head
              is used.

       -e/--referer <URL>
              (HTTP)  Sends the "Referer Page" information to the
              HTTP server. Some badly done CGIs fail if it's  not
              set. This can also be set with the -H/--header flag
              of course.

       -E/--cert <certificate[:password]>
              (HTTPS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate
              file  when  getting a file with HTTPS. The certifi-
              cate must be in PEM format.  If the optional  pass-
              word isn't specified, it will be queried for on the
              terminal. Note that this certificate is the private
              key and the private certificate concatenated!

              (HTTP)  Fail  silently (no output at all) on server
              errors. This is mostly done  like  this  to  better
              enable  scripts  etc  to  better  deal  with failed
              attempts. In normal cases when a HTTP server  fails
              to  deliver  a document, it returns a HTML document
              stating so (which  often  also  describes  why  and
              more).  This flag will prevent curl from outputting
              that and fail silently instead.

       -F/--form <name=content>
              (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled in  form  in
              which  a  user  has pressed the submit button. This
              causes curl to POST  data  using  the  content-type
              multipart/form-data   according  to  RFC1867.  This
              enables uploading of binary files etc. To force the
              'content'  part  to be read from a file, prefix the
              file name with an @ sign.  Example,  to  send  your
              password  file  to  the server, where 'password' is
              the name of the  form-field  to  which  /etc/passwd
              will be the input:

              curl -F password=@/etc/passwd

              To  read  the file's content from stdin insted of a
              file, use - where the file name should've been.

              Usage help.

       -H/--header <header>
              (HTTP) Extra header to use when getting a web page.
              You  may  specify any number of extra headers. Note
              that if you should add a custom header that has the
              same  name  as  one of the internal ones curl would
              use,  your  externally  set  header  will  be  used
              instead  of  the  internal  one. This allows you to
              make even trickier stuff than curl  would  normally
              do.  You  should not replace internally set headers
              without knowing perfectly well what you're doing.

              (HTTP) Include the HTTP-header in the  output.  The
              HTTP-header  includes things like server-name, date
              of the document, HTTP-version and more...

              (HTTP/FTP) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers
              feature  the  command  HEAD  which this uses to get
              nothing but the header of a document. When used  on
              a FTP file, curl displays the file size only.

       -K/--config <config file>
              Specify  which  config  file to read curl arguments
              from. The config file is a text file in which  com-
              mand  line arguments can be written which then will
              be used as if they were written on the actual  com-
              mand  line. If the first column of a config line is
              a '#' character, the  rest  of  the  line  will  be
              treated as a comment.

              Specify  the  filename as '-' to make curl read the
              file from stdin.

              (FTP) When listing an FTP  directory,  this  switch
              forces  a name-only view.  Especially useful if you
              want to machine-parse the contents of an FTP direc-
              tory  since the normal directory view doesn't use a
              standard look or format.

              (HTTP/HTTPS)  If  the  server  reports   that   the
              requested  page has a different location (indicated
              with the header line Location:) this flag will  let
              curl attempt to reattempt the get on the new place.
              If used together with -i or -I,  headers  from  all
              requested pages will be shown.

       -m/--max-time <seconds>
              Maximum  time  in  seconds that you allow the whole
              operation to take.  This is useful  for  preventing
              your  batch jobs from hanging for hours due to slow
              networks or links going down.   This  doesn't  work
              properly in win32 systems.

              Manual. Display the huge help text.

              Makes  curl scan the .netrc file in the user's home
              directory for login name and password. This is typ-
              ically  used  for  ftp  on unix. If used with http,
              curl will enable user authentication. See  netrc(4)
              for  details on the file format. Curl will not com-
              plain if that file hasn't the right permissions (it
              should  not be world nor group readable). The envi-
              ronment variable "HOME" is used to  find  the  home

              A  quick  and very simple example of how to setup a
              .netrc  to  allow  curl  to  ftp  to  the   machine
     with user name

              machine user myself password secret

       -o/--output <file>
              Write output to <file> instead of  stdout.  If  you
              are using {} or [] to fetch multiple documents, you
              can use #<num> in the <file> specifier. That  vari-
              able  will  be replaced with the current string for
              the URL being fetched. Like in:

                curl http://{one,two} -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

                curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

              Write output to a local file named like the  remote
              file we get. (Only the file part of the remote file
              is used, the path is cut off.)

       -P/--ftpport <address>
              (FTP) Reverses the  initiator/listenor  roles  when
              connecting with ftp. This switch makes Curl use the
              PORT command instead of  PASV.  In  practice,  PORT
              tells  the server to connect to the client's speci-
              fied address and port, while PASV asks  the  server
              for an ip address and port to connect to. <address>
              should be one of:
               interface - i.e "eth0"  to  specify  which  inter-
              face's IP address you want to use  (Unix only)
               IP  address  - i.e "" to specify exact
              IP number
               host  name  -  i.e  ""  to   specify
               "-"        - (any single-letter string) to make it
              pick the machine's default

       -q     If used as the first parameter on the command line,
              the $HOME/.curlrc file will not be read and used as
              a config file.

       -Q/--quote <comand>
              (FTP) Send an arbitrary command to the  remote  FTP
              server,  by  using the QUOTE command of the server.
              Not all servers support this command, and  the  set
              of QUOTE commands are server specific!

       -r/--range <range>
              (HTTP/FTP)  Retrieve  a  byte  range (i.e a partial
              document) from a HTTP/1.1 or FTP server. Ranges can
              be specified in a number of ways.
               0-499           - specifies the first 500 bytes
               500-999         - specifies the second 500 bytes
               -500            - specifies the last 500 bytes
               9500-            - specifies the bytes from offset
              9500 and forward
               0-0,-1          - specifies  the  first  and  last
              byte only(*)(H)
               500-700,600-799  - specifies 300 bytes from offset
               100-199,500-599 - specifies two separate 100 bytes

              (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply
              with a multipart response!

              You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers
              do  not have this feature enabled, so that when you
              attempt to get a  range,  you'll  instead  get  the
              whole document.

              FTP  range downloads only support the simple syntax
              'start-stop' (optionally with one  of  the  numbers
              omitted). It depends on the non-RFC command SIZE.

              Silent  mode.  Don't  show  progress meter or error
              messages.  Makes Curl mute.

              When used with -s it makes curl show error  message
              if it fails.

              Transfer the stdin data to the specified file. Curl
              will read everything from stdin until EOF and store
              with  the  supplied  name.  If  this  is  used on a
              http(s) server, the PUT command will be used.

       -T/--upload-file <file>
              Like -t, but this  transfers  the  specified  local
              file.  If  there  is  no file part in the specified
              URL, Curl will append the  local  file  name.  NOTE
              that  you  must use a trailing / on the last direc-
              tory to really prove to Curl that there is no  file
              name  or  curl  will think that your last directory
              name is the remote file name to use. That will most
              likely  cause the upload operation to fail. If this
              is used on a http(s) server, the PUT  command  will
              be used.

       -u/--user <user:password>
              Specify user and password to use when fetching. See
              README.curl for detailed examples  of  how  to  use
              this.  If  no  password is specified, curl will ask
              for it interactively.

       -U/--proxy-user <user:password>
              Specify user and password to use for Proxy  authen-
              tication.  If  no  password is specified, curl will
              ask for it interactively.

              Makes the fetching more  verbose/talkative.  Mostly
              usable for debugging. Lines starting with '>' means
              data sent by curl, '<' means data received by  curl
              that  is  hidden in normal cases and lines starting
              with '*' means additional info provided by curl.

              Displays the full  version  of  curl,  libcurl  and
              other  3rd  party  libraries  linked  with the exe-

       -x/--proxy <proxyhost[:port]>
              Use specified proxy. If  the  port  number  is  not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

       -X/--http-request <request>
              (HTTP)  Specifies a custom request to use when com-
              municating with the  HTTP  server.   The  specified
              request  will  be used instead of the standard GET.
              Read the HTTP 1.1  specification  for  details  and

       -y/--speed-time <speed>
              Speed  Limit.  If  a  download  is slower than this
              given speed, in bytes per second,  for  Speed  Time
              seconds  it gets aborted. Speed Time is set with -Y
              and is 30 if not set.

       -Y/--speed-limit <time>
              Speed Time. If a  download  is  slower  than  Speed
              Limit  bytes per second during a Speed Time period,
              the download gets aborted. If Speed Time  is  used,
              the  default  Speed Limit will be 1 unless set with

       -z/--time-cond <date expression>
              (HTTP) Request to get a file that has been modified
              later than the given time and date, or one that has
              been modified before that time. The date expression
              can  be  all sorts of date strings or if it doesn't
              match any internal ones, it tries to get  the  time
              from a given file name instead! See the GNU date(1)
              man page for date expression details.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-)  to  make
              it  request  for  a document that is older than the
              given date/time, default  is  a  document  that  is
              newer than the specified date/time.

              (HTTPS) Forces curl to use SSL version 3 when nego-
              tiating with a remote SSL server.

              (HTTPS) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when nego-
              tiating with a remote SSL server.

              Make   curl   display  progress  information  as  a
              progress bar instead of the default statistics.

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for  MVS

       --stderr <file>
              Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file
              instead. If the file name is a  plain  '-',  it  is
              instead written to stdout. This option has no point
              when you're using a shell with  decent  redirecting

              Default config file.

       HTTP_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       FTP_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use for FTP.

       GOPHER_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets proxy server to use for GOPHER.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets  proxy  server  to use if no protocol-specific
              proxy is set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>
              list of host names that shouldn't  go  through  any
              proxy.  If  set  to a asterisk '*' only, it matches
              all hosts.

       COLUMNS <integer>
              The width of  the  terminal.   This  variable  only
              affects  curl  when  the  --progress-bar  option is

       There exists a bunch of different error messages that  may
       appear  during  bad conditions. They're all pretty verbose
       and descriptive and therefore you won't  find  any  closer
       description of them here.

       If  you  do  find  any  (or  have other suggestions), mail
       Daniel Stenberg <>.

        - Daniel Stenberg <>
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        - Bjorn Reese <>
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        - Troy Engel <>
        - Ryan Nelson <>
        - Bjorn Stenberg <>
        - Angus Mackay <>
        - Eric Young <>
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        - Steven G. Johnson <>
        - Gilbert Ramirez Jr. <>
        - Andrs Garca <>
        - Douglas E. Wegscheid <>
        - Mark Butler <>
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        - Marc Boucher <>
        - Greg Onufer <Greg.Onufer@Eng.Sun.COM>
        - Doug Kaufman <>
        - David Eriksson <>
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        - T. Yamada <>
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        - Felix von Leitner <>
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        - Chris Maltby <>



       ftp(1), wget(1), snarf(1)

Curl 6.3                 8 November 1999                        1