ENGLISH(4)                                             ENGLISH(4)

NAME
       english - flag format for English ispell dictionaries

DESCRIPTION
       English  dictionaries  for ispell(1) supports 3 prefix and
       14 suffix flags.  For a detailed description of how ispell
       handles  flags  and  capitalization,  see ispell(4).  This
       manual page only describes flags  usable  in  dictionaries
       built using the english.aff affix file.

       In  the  following discussion of the flags, let # and @ be
       "variables" that can stand for  any  letter.   Upper  case
       letters  are  constants.   "..."  stands for any string of
       zero or more letters, but note that no word may  exist  in
       the  dictionary  which is not at least 2 letters long, so,
       for example, "fly" may not be produced by placing the  "Y"
       flag  on  "f".  Also, no flag is effective unless the word
       that it creates is at least 4 letters long, so, for  exam-
       ple,  "wed" may not be produced by placing the "D" flag on
       "we".

       In the following list, an asterisk indicates that  a  flag
       participates in cross-product formation (see ispell(4)).

       The meaning of the prefix flags is as follows:

       *A
              ... --> re...  as in cover --> recover

       *I
              ... --> in...  as in firm --> infirm

       *U
              ... --> un...  as in able --> unable

       The meaning of the suffix flags is as follows:

       V
              ...e --> ...ive  as in create --> creative
              if  #  .ne.  e, ...# --> ...#ive  as in prevent -->
                   preventive

       *N
              ...e --> ...ion  as in create --> creation
              ...y --> ...ication  as in multiply --> multiplica-
                   tion
              if  #  .ne. e or y, ...# --> ...#en  as in fall -->
                   fallen

       *X
              ...e --> ...ions  as in create --> creations
              ...y --> ...ications  as in multiply -->  multipli-
                   cations
              if  # .ne. e or y, ...# --> ...#ens  as in weak -->
                   weakens

       H
              ...y --> ...ieth  as in twenty --> twentieth
              if # .ne. y, ...# --> ...#th   as  in  hundred  -->
                   hundredth

       *Y
              ... --> ...ly  as in quick --> quickly

       *G
              ...e --> ...ing  as in file --> filing
              if  #  .ne.  e,  ...#  --> ...#ing  as in cross -->
                   crossing

       *J
              ...e --> ...ings  as in file --> filings
              if # .ne. e, ...# --> ...#ings   as  in  cross  -->
                   crossings

       *D
              ...e --> ...ed  as in create --> created
              if  @  .ne. a, e, i, o, or u, ...@y --> ...@ied  as
                   in imply --> implied
              if # .ne. e or y, or (# = y and @ = a, e, i, o,  or
                   u)  ...@# --> ...@#ed  as in cross --> crossed
                   or convey --> conveyed

       T
              ...e --> ...est  as in late --> latest
              if @ .ne. a, e, i, o, or u, ...@y --> ...@iest   as
                   in dirty --> dirtiest
              if  # .ne. e or y, or (# = y and @ = a, e, i, o, or
                   u) ...@# --> ...@#est  as in small -->  small-
                   est or gray --> grayest

       *R
              ...e --> ...er  as in skate --> skater
              if  @  .ne. a, e, i, o, or u, ...@y --> ...@ier  as
                   in multiply --> multiplier
              if # .ne. e or y, or (# = y and @ = a, e, i, o,  or
                   u)  ...@# --> ...@#er  as in build --> builder
                   or convey --> conveyer

       *Z
              ...e --> ...ers  as in skate --> skaters
              if @ .ne. a, e, i, o, or u, ...@y --> ...@iers   as
                   in multiply --> multipliers
              if  # .ne. e or y, or (# = y and @ = a, e, i, o, or
                   u)  ...@#  -->  ...@#ers   as  in  build   -->
                   builders or slay --> slayers

       *S
              if  @  .ne. a, e, i, o, or u, ...@y --> ...@ies  as
                   in imply --> implies
              if # .eq. s, x, z, or h, ...# --> ...#es  as in fix
                   --> fixes
              if # .ne. s, x, z, h, or y, or (# = y and @ = a, e,
                   i, o, or u) ...@# --> ...@#s  as  in  bat  -->
                   bats or convey --> conveys
              if @ .ne. a, e, i, o, or u, ...@y --> ...@iness  as
                   in cloudy --> cloudiness
              if # .ne. y, or @ = a, e, i, o,  or  u,  ...@#  -->
                   ...@#ness  as in late --> lateness or gray -->
                   grayness

       *M
              ... --> ...'s  as in dog --> dog's

       To summarize more briefly:

       Prefixes:
              *A - re
              *I - in
              *U - un

       Suffixes:
              V - ive
              *N - ion, tion, en
              *X - ions, ications, ens
              H - th, ieth
              *Y - ly
              *G - ing
              *J - ings
              *D - ed
              T - est
              *R - er
              *Z - ers
              *S - s, es, ies
              *P - ness, iness
              *M - 's

SEE ALSO
       ispell(1), ispell(4)

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