VI(1)                                                       VI(1)

NAME
       ex, vi, view - text editors

SYNOPSIS
       ex [-eFGRrSsv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
       vi [-eFGlRrSv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
       view [-eFGRrSv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]

LICENSE
       The vi program is freely redistributable.  You are welcome
       to copy, modify and share it with others under the  condi-
       tions  listed  in  the  LICENSE file.  If any company (not
       individual!) finds vi sufficiently useful that  you  would
       have  purchased  it,  or  if  any company wishes to redis-
       tribute it, contributions to the authors would be appreci-
       ated.

DESCRIPTION
       Vi  is  a  screen oriented text editor.  Ex is a line-ori-
       ented text editor.  Ex and vi are different interfaces  to
       the  same  program,  and it is possible to switch back and
       forth during an edit session.  View is the  equivalent  of
       using the -R (read-only) option of vi.

       This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi ver-
       sions of the ex/vi text editors.  Nex/nvi are intended  as
       bug-for-bug   compatible  replacements  for  the  original
       Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution  (4BSD)  ex  and  vi
       programs.   For  the  rest of this manual page, nex/nvi is
       used only when it's necessary to distinguish it  from  the
       historic implementations of ex/vi.

       This  manual  page  is intended for users already familiar
       with ex/vi.  Anyone else should almost  certainly  read  a
       good  tutorial  on the editor before this manual page.  If
       you're in an unfamiliar environment,  and  you  absolutely
       have  to get work done immediately, read the section after
       the options description, entitled ``Fast Startup''.   It's
       probably enough to get you going.

       The following options are available:

       -c     Execute  cmd  immediately  after  starting the edit
              session.  Particularly useful for initial position-
              ing  in  the  file,  however  cmd is not limited to
              positioning commands.  This  is  the  POSIX  1003.2
              interface   for   the   historic  ``+cmd''  syntax.
              Nex/nvi supports both the old and new syntax.

       -e     Start editing in ex mode, as if  the  command  name
              were ex.

       -F     Don't  copy  the entire file when first starting to
              edit.  (The default is to make a copy in case some-
              one  else  modifies  the file during your edit ses-
              sion.)

       -l     Start editing with the lisp and  showmatch  options
              set.

       -G     Start  editing  in  gtags mode, as if the gtagsmode
              option was set.

       -R     Start editing in read-only mode, as if the  command
              name was view, or the readonly option was set.

       -r     Recover  the  specified  files, or, if no files are
              specified, list the files that could be  recovered.
              If  no  recoverable  files  by  the  specified name
              exist, the file is edited as if the -r  option  had
              not been specified.

       -S     Run  with  the  secure edit option set, disallowing
              all access to external programs.

       -s     Enter batch mode; applicable only to ex  edit  ses-
              sions.   Batch  mode  is  useful  when  running  ex
              scripts.  Prompts, informative messages  and  other
              user  oriented  message  are  turned  off,  and  no
              startup files or environment  variables  are  read.
              This is the POSIX 1003.2 interface for the historic
              ``-'' argument.  Nex/nvi supports both the old  and
              new syntax.

       -t     Start   editing   at   the   specified  tag.   (See
              ctags(1)).

       -w     Set the initial window size to the specified number
              of lines.

       -v     Start  editing  in  vi mode, as if the command name
              was vi or view.

       Command input for ex/vi is read from the  standard  input.
       In  the  vi interface, it is an error if standard input is
       not a terminal.  In the ex interface, if standard input is
       not  a terminal, ex will read commands from it regardless,
       however, the session will be a batch mode session, exactly
       as if the -s option had been specified.

       Ex/vi  exits  0 on success, and greater than 0 if an error
       occurs.

FAST STARTUP
       This section will tell you the  minimum  amount  that  you
       need to do simple editing tasks using vi.  If you've never
       used any screen editor before, you're likely to have prob-
       lems even with this simple introduction.  In that case you
       should find someone that already knows vi  and  have  them
       walk you through this section.

       Vi is a screen editor.  This means that it takes up almost
       the entire screen, displaying part of  the  file  on  each
       screen  line, except for the last line of the screen.  The
       last line of the screen is used for you to  give  commands
       to vi, and for vi to give information to you.

       The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a
       modeful editor, i.e. you are either entering text  or  you
       are  executing  commands,  and you have to be in the right
       mode to do one or the other.  You will be in command  mode
       when  you  first start editing a file.  There are commands
       that switch you into input mode.  There is  only  one  key
       that takes you out of input mode, and that is the <escape>
       key.  (Key names are written using less-than and  greater-
       than  signs, e.g.  <escape> means the ``escape'' key, usu-
       ally labeled ``esc'' on  your  terminal's  keyboard.)   If
       you're  ever  confused  as  to  which mode you're in, keep
       entering the <escape> key until vi beeps at you.   (Gener-
       ally,  vi  will  beep  at  you if you try and do something
       that's not allowed.  It will also display error messages.)

       To   start   editing   a  file,  enter  the  command  ``vi
       file_name<carriage-return>''.   The  command  you   should
       enter as soon as you start editing is ``:set verbose show-
       mode<carriage-return>''.  This will make the  editor  give
       you verbose error messages and display the current mode at
       the bottom of the screen.

       The commands to move around the file are:

       h      Move the cursor left one character.

       j      Move the cursor down one line.

       k      Move the cursor up one line.

       l      Move the cursor right one character.

       <cursor-arrows>
              The cursor arrow keys should work, too.

       /text<carriage-return>
              Search for the string ``text''  in  the  file,  and
              move the cursor to its first character.

       The commands to enter new text are:

       a      Append new text, after the cursor.

       i      Insert new text, before the cursor.

       o      Open  a  new  line below the line the cursor is on,
              and start entering text.

       O      Open a new line above the line the  cursor  is  on,
              and start entering text.

       <escape>
              Once you've entered input mode using the one of the
              a, i, O or o commands, use <escape> to quit  enter-
              ing text and return to command mode.

       The commands to copy text are:

       yy     Copy the line the cursor is on.

       p      Append the copied line after the line the cursor is
              on.

       The commands to delete text are:

       dd     Delete the line the cursor is on.

       x      Delete the character the cursor is on.

       The commands to write the file are:

       :w<carriage-return>
              Write the file back to the file with the name  that
              you  originally  used as an argument on the vi com-
              mand line.

       :w file_name<carriage-return>
              Write the file back  to  the  file  with  the  name
              ``file_name''.

       The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are:

       :q<carriage-return>
              Quit  editing  and leave vi (if you've modified the
              file, but not saved your changes, vi will refuse to
              quit).

       :q!<carriage-return>
              Quit,  discarding  any  modifications  that you may
              have made.

       One final caution.  Unusual characters can  take  up  more
       than  one column on the screen, and long lines can take up
       more than a single screen line.  The above  commands  work
       on ``physical'' characters and lines, i.e. they affect the
       entire line no matter how many screen lines  it  takes  up
       and the entire character no matter how many screen columns
       it takes up.

VI COMMANDS
       The following section describes the commands available  in
       the  command  mode of the vi editor.  In each entry below,
       the tag line is a usage synopsis for the  command  charac-
       ter.

       [count] <control-A>
              Search forward count times for the current word.

       [count] <control-B>
              Page backwards count screens.

       [count] <control-D>
              Scroll forward count lines.

       [count] <control-E>
              Scroll  forward  count  lines,  leaving the current
              line and column as is, if possible.

       [count] <control-F>
              Page forward count screens.

       <control-G>
              Display the file information.

       <control-H>

       [count] h
              Move the cursor back count characters in  the  cur-
              rent line.

       [count] <control-J>

       [count] <control-N>

       [count] j
              Move  the  cursor down count lines without changing
              the current column.

       <control-L>

       <control-R>
              Repaint the screen.

       [count] <control-M>

       [count] +
              Move the cursor down count lines to the first  non-
              blank character of that line.

       [count] <control-P>

       [count] k
              Move  the  cursor  up count lines, without changing
              the current column.

       <control-T>
              Return to the most recent tag context.

       <control-U>
              Scroll backwards count lines.

       <control-W>
              Switch to the next lower screen in the window,  or,
              to  the  first screen if there are no lower screens
              in the window.

       <control-Y>
              Scroll backwards count lines, leaving  the  current
              line and column as is, if possible.

       <control-Z>
              Suspend the current editor session.

       <escape>
              Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands.

       <control-]>
              Push  a  tag  reference  onto  the  tag  stack.  In
              gtagsmode, if at the first column of  line,  locate
              function references otherwise function definitions.

       <control-^>
              Switch to the most recently edited file.

       [count] <space>

       [count] l
              Move the cursor forward  count  characters  without
              changing the current line.

       [count] ! motion shell-argument(s)
              Replace text with results from a shell command.

       [count] # #|+|-
              Increment or decrement the cursor number.

       [count] $
              Move the cursor to the end of a line.

       %      Move to the matching character.

       &      Repeat  the  previous  substitution  command on the
              current line.

       '<character>

       `<character>
              Return to a context marked by the character  <char-
              acter>.

       [count] (
              Back up count sentences.

       [count] )
              Move forward count sentences.

       [count] ,
              Reverse find character count times.

       [count] -
              Move  to first nonblank of the previous line, count
              times.

       [count] .
              Repeat the last vi command that modified text.

       /RE<carriage-return>

       /RE/ [offset]<carriage-return>

       ?RE<carriage-return>

       ?RE? [offset]<carriage-return>

       N

       n      Search forward or backward for  a  regular  expres-
              sion.

       0      Move to the first character in the current line.

       :      Execute an ex command.

       [count] ;
              Repeat the last character find count times.

       [count] < motion

       [count] > motion
              Shift lines left or right.

       @ buffer
              Execute a named buffer.

       [count] A
              Enter  input mode, appending the text after the end
              of the line.

       [count] B
              Move backwards count bigwords.

       [buffer] [count] C
              Change text from the current position to  the  end-
              of-line.

       [buffer] D
              Delete  text  from the current position to the end-
              of-line.

       [count] E
              Move forward count end-of-bigwords.

       [count] F <character>
              Search count times  backward  through  the  current
              line for <character>.

       [count] G
              Move to line count, or the last line of the file if
              count not specified.

       [count] H
              Move to the screen line count - 1 lines  below  the
              top of the screen.

       [count] I
              Enter  input mode, inserting the text at the begin-
              ning of the line.

       [count] J
              Join lines.

       [count] L
              Move to the screen line count - 1 lines  above  the
              bottom of the screen.

        M     Move  to  the  screen  line  in  the  middle of the
              screen.

       [count] O
              Enter input mode, appending  text  in  a  new  line
              above the current line.

       [buffer] P
              Insert text from a buffer.

       Q      Exit vi (or visual) mode and switch to ex mode.

       [count] R
              Enter  input  mode, replacing the characters in the
              current line.

       [buffer] [count] S
              Substitute count lines.

       [count] T <character>
              Search backwards, count times, through the  current
              line for the character after the specified <charac-
              ter>.

       U      Restore the current line to its  state  before  the
              cursor last moved to it.

       [count] W
              Move forward count bigwords.

       [buffer] [count] X
              Delete count characters before the cursor.

       [buffer] [count] Y
              Copy  (or  ``yank'') count lines into the specified
              buffer.

       ZZ     Write the file and exit vi.

       [count] [[
              Back up count section boundaries.

       [count] ]]
              Move forward count section boundaries.

       ^      Move to first nonblank  character  on  the  current
              line.

       [count] _
              Move  down  count  - 1 lines, to the first nonblank
              character.

       [count] a
              Enter input mode, appending the text after the cur-
              sor.

       [count] b
              Move backwards count words.

       [buffer] [count] c motion
              Change a region of text.

       [buffer] [count] d motion
              Delete a region of text.

       [count] e
              Move forward count end-of-words.

       [count] f<character>
              Search  forward,  count  times, through the rest of
              the current line for <character>.

       [count] i
              Enter input mode, inserting  the  text  before  the
              cursor.

       m <character>
              Save  the  current  context  (line  and  column) as
              <character>.

       [count] o
              Enter input mode, appending  text  in  a  new  line
              under the current line.

       [buffer] p
              Append text from a buffer.

       [count] r <character>
              Replace count characters.

       [buffer] [count] s
              Substitute  count  characters  in  the current line
              starting with the current character.

       [count] t <character>
              Search forward, count times,  through  the  current
              line  for the character immediately before <charac-
              ter>.

       u      Undo the last change made to the file.

       [count] w
              Move forward count words.

       [buffer] [count] x
              Delete count characters.

       [buffer] [count] y motion
              Copy (or ``yank'') a text region specified  by  the
              count and motion into a buffer.

       [count1] z [count2] -|.|+|^|<carriage-return>
              Redraw,  optionally  repositioning and resizing the
              screen.

       [count] {
              Move backward count paragraphs.

       [count] |
              Move to a specific column position on  the  current
              line.

       [count] }
              Move forward count paragraphs.

       [count] ~
              Reverse the case of the next count character(s).

       [count] ~ motion
              Reverse the case of the characters in a text region
              specified by the count and motion.

       <interrupt>
              Interrupt the current operation.

VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS
       The following section describes the commands available  in
       the text input mode of the vi editor.

       <nul>  Replay the previous input.

       <control-D>
              Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary.

       ^<control-D>
              Erase  all  of the autoindent characters, and reset
              the autoindent level.

       0<control-D>
              Erase all of the autoindent characters.

       <control-T>
              Insert sufficient <tab> and <space>  characters  to
              move  forward  to the next shiftwidth column bound-
              ary.

       <erase>

       <control-H>
              Erase the last character.

       <literal next>
              Quote the next character.

       <escape>
              Resolve all text input into the file, and return to
              command mode.

       <line erase>
              Erase the current line.

       <control-W>

       <word erase>
              Erase  the  last  word.   The definition of word is
              dependent on the altwerase and ttywerase options.

       <control-X>[0-9A-Fa-f]+
              Insert a character with the  specified  hexadecimal
              value into the text.

       <interrupt>
              Interrupt  text  input  mode,  returning to command
              mode.

EX COMMANDS
       The following section describes the commands available  in
       the  ex  editor.   In  each entry below, the tag line is a
       usage synopsis for the command.

       <end-of-file>
              Scroll the screen.

       ! argument(s)

       [range]! argument(s)
              Execute a shell command, or filter lines through  a
              shell command.

       "      A comment.

       [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags]

       [range] # [count] [flags]
              Display  the selected lines, each preceded with its
              line number.

       @ buffer

       * buffer
              Execute a buffer.

       [line] a[ppend][!]
              The input text  is  appended  after  the  specified
              line.

       [range] c[hange][!] [count]
              The input text replaces the specified range.

       cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset
              Execute a Cscope command.

       [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags]
              Delete the lines from the file.

       di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags]
              Display  buffers,  Cscope  connections,  screens or
              tags.

       [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file]

       [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file]
              Edit a different file.

       exu[sage] [command]
              Display usage for an ex command.

       f[ile] [file]
              Display and optionally change the file name.

       [Ff]g [name]
              Vi mode only.  Foreground the specified screen.

       [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands]

       [range] v /pattern/ [commands]
              Apply commands to lines matching (or not  matching)
              a pattern.

       he[lp] Display a help message.

       [line] i[nsert][!]
              The  input  text  is  inserted before the specified
              line.

       [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags]
              Join lines of text together.

       [range] l[ist] [count] [flags]
              Display the lines unambiguously.

       map[!] [lhs rhs]
              Define or display maps (for vi only).

       [line] ma[rk] <character>

       [line] k <character>
              Mark the line with the mark <character>.

       [range] m[ove] line
              Move the specified lines after the target line.

       mk[exrc][!] file
              Write the abbreviations, editor options and maps to
              the specified file.

       [Nn][ext][!] [file ...]
              Edit the next file from the argument list.

       [line] o[pen] /pattern/ [flags]
              Enter open mode.

       pre[serve]
              Save the file in a form that can later be recovered
              using the ex -r option.

       [Pp]rev[ious][!]
              Edit the previous file from the argument list.

       [range] p[rint] [count] [flags]
              Display the specified lines.

       [line] pu[t] [buffer]
              Append buffer contents to the current line.

       q[uit][!]
              End the editing session.

       [line] r[ead][!] [file]
              Read a file.

       rec[over] file
              Recover file if it was previously saved.

       res[ize] [+|-]size
              Vi mode only.  Grow or shrink the current screen.

       rew[ind][!]
              Rewind the argument list.

       rta[g][!] tagstring
              Edit the file referring the specified tag. (Only in
              gtagsmode)

       se[t] [option[=[value]] ...] [nooption ...] [option? ...]
              [all]
              Display or set editor options.

       sh[ell]
              Run a shell program.

       so[urce] file
              Read and execute ex commands from a file.

       [range]  s[ubstitute]   [/pattern/replace/]   [options]
              [count] [flags]

       [range] & [options] [count] [flags]

       [range] ~ [options] [count] [flags]
              Make substitutions.

       su[spend][!]

       st[op][!]

       <suspend>
              Suspend the edit session.

       [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring
              Edit the file containing the specified tag.

       tagn[ext][!]
              Edit the file containing the next context  for  the
              current tag.

       tagp[op][!] [file | number]
              Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack.

       tagp[rev][!]
              Edit  the  file containing the previous context for
              the current tag.

       unm[ap][!] lhs
              Unmap a mapped string.

       ve[rsion]
              Display the version of the ex/vi editor.

       [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags]
              Ex mode only.  Enter vi.

       [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file]
              Vi mode only.  Edit a new file.

       viu[sage] [command]
              Display usage for a vi command.

       [range] w[rite][!] [>>] [file]

       [range] w[rite] [!] [file]

       [range] wn[!] [>>] [file]

       [range] wq[!] [>>] [file]
              Write the file.

       [range] x[it][!] [file]
              Write the file if it has been modified.

       [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count]
              Copy the specified lines to a buffer.

       [line] z [type] [count] [flags]
              Adjust the window.

SET OPTIONS
       There are a large number of options that may  be  set  (or
       unset)  to  change  the  editor's  behavior.  This section
       describes  the  options,  their  abbreviations  and  their
       default values.

       In each entry below, the first part of the tag line is the
       full name of the option, followed by any equivalent abbre-
       viations.   The  part  in  square  brackets is the default
       value of the option.  Most of  the  options  are  boolean,
       i.e. they are either on or off, and do not have an associ-
       ated value.

       Options apply to both ex and vi  modes,  unless  otherwise
       specified.

       altwerase [off]
              Vi only.  Select an alternate word erase algorithm.

       autoindent, ai [off]
              Automatically indent new lines.

       autoprint, ap [off]
              Ex only.  Display the current line automatically.

       autowrite, aw [off]
              Write modified files  automatically  when  changing
              files.

       backup [""]
              Backup files before they are overwritten.

       beautify, bf [off]
              Discard control characters.

       cdpath [environment variable CDPATH, or current directory]
              The directory paths used as path prefixes  for  the
              cd command.

       cedit [no default]
              Set  the  character  to edit the colon command-line
              history.

       columns, co [80]
              Set the number of columns in the screen.

       comment [off]
              Vi only.  Skip leading comments in shell, C and C++
              language files.

       directory, dir [environment variable TMPDIR, or /tmp]
              The directory where temporary files are created.

       edcompatible, ed [off]
              Remember the values of the ``c'' and ``g'' suffices
              to the substitute commands, instead of initializing
              them as unset for each new command.

       errorbells, eb [off]
              Ex only.  Announce error messages with a bell.

       exrc, ex [off]
              Read the startup files in the local directory.

       extended [off]
              Regular     expressions    are    extended    (i.e.
              egrep(1)-style) expressions.

       filec [no default]
              Set the character to perform file  path  completion
              on the colon command line.

       flash [on]
              Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on
              error.

       gtagsmode, gt [off]
              Use GTAGS and GRTAGS instead of tags.

       hardtabs, ht [8]
              Set the spacing between hardware tab settings.

       iclower [off]
              Makes all Regular Expressions case-insensitive,  as
              long as an upper-case letter does not appear in the
              search string.

       ignorecase, ic [off]
              Ignore case differences in regular expressions.

       keytime [6]
              The 10th's of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent
              key to complete a key mapping.

       leftright [off]
              Vi only.  Do left-right scrolling.

       lines, li [24]
              Vi only.  Set the number of lines in the screen.

       lisp [off]
              Vi   only.   Modify  various  search  commands  and
              options to work with Lisp.  This option is not  yet
              implemented.

       list [off]
              Display lines in an unambiguous fashion.

       lock [on]
              Attempt  to get an exclusive lock on any file being
              edited, read or written.

       magic [on]
              Treat  certain  characters  specially  in   regular
              expressions.

       matchtime [7]
              Vi  only.   The  10th's of a second ex/vi pauses on
              the matching character when the showmatch option is
              set.

       mesg [on]
              Permit messages from other users.

       modelines, modeline [off]
              Read  the first and last few lines of each file for
              ex commands.  This  option  will  never  be  imple-
              mented.

       noprint [""]
              Characters  that  are  never  handled  as printable
              characters.

       number, nu [off]
              Precede each line displayed with its  current  line
              number.

       octal [off]
              Display   unknown   characters  as  octal  numbers,
              instead of the default hexadecimal.

       open [on]
              Ex only.  If this option is not set, the  open  and
              visual commands are disallowed.

       optimize, opt [on]
              Vi  only.   Optimize text throughput to dumb termi-
              nals.  This option is not yet implemented.

       paragraphs, para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp]
              Vi only.  Define  additional  paragraph  boundaries
              for the { and } commands.

       path []
              Define  additional  directories to search for files
              being edited.

       print [""]
              Characters that are  always  handled  as  printable
              characters.

       prompt [on]
              Ex only.  Display a command prompt.

       readonly, ro [off]
              Mark the file and session as read-only.

       recdir [/var/tmp/vi.recover]
              The directory where recovery files are stored.

       redraw, re [off]
              Vi  only.   Simulate  an  intelligent terminal on a
              dumb one.  This option is not yet implemented.

       remap [on]
              Remap keys until resolved.

       report [5]
              Set the number of  lines  about  which  the  editor
              reports changes or yanks.

       ruler [off]
              Vi  only.   Display a row/column ruler on the colon
              command line.

       scroll, scr [window / 2]
              Set the number of lines scrolled.

       searchincr [off]
              Makes the / and ?  commands incremental.

       sections, sect [NHSHH HUnhsh]
              Vi only.  Define additional section boundaries  for
              the [[ and ]] commands.

       secure [off]
              Turns off all access to external programs.

       shell, sh [environment variable SHELL, or /bin/sh]
              Select the shell used by the editor.

       shellmeta [~{[*?$`'"\]
              Set  the  meta  characters  checked to determine if
              file name expansion is necessary.

       shiftwidth, sw [8]
              Set the autoindent and  shift  command  indentation
              width.

       showmatch, sm [off]
              Vi  only.   Note matching ``{'' and ``('' for ``}''
              and ``)'' characters.

       showmode, smd [off]
              Vi only.  Display the current  editor  mode  and  a
              ``modified'' flag.

       sidescroll [16]
              Vi  only.   Set the amount a left-right scroll will
              shift.

       slowopen, slow [off]
              Delay display updating  during  text  input.   This
              option is not yet implemented.

       sourceany [off]
              Read  startup  files not owned by the current user.
              This option will never be implemented.

       tabstop, ts [8]
              This option sets tab widths for the editor display.

       taglength, tl [0]
              Set  the  number  of  significant characters in tag
              names.

       tags, tag [tags /var/db/libc.tags /sys/kern/tags]
              Set the list of tags files.

       term, ttytype, tty [environment variable TERM]
              Set the terminal type.

       terse [off]
              This option has historically made  editor  messages
              less verbose.  It has no effect in this implementa-
              tion.

       tildeop [off]
              Modify the ~ command to take an associated  motion.

       timeout, to [on]
              Time out on keys which may be mapped.

       ttywerase [off]
              Vi only.  Select an alternate erase algorithm.

       verbose [off]
              Vi only.  Display an error message for every error.

       w300 [no default]
              Vi only.  Set the window size if the baud  rate  is
              less than 1200 baud.

       w1200 [no default]
              Vi  only.   Set the window size if the baud rate is
              equal to 1200 baud.

       w9600 [no default]
              Vi only.  Set the window size if the baud  rate  is
              greater than 1200 baud.

       warn [on]
              Ex  only.   This option causes a warning message to
              the terminal if the file has been  modified,  since
              it was last written, before a !  command.

       window, w, wi [environment variable LINES]
              Set the window size for the screen.

       windowname [off]
              Change  the  icon/window  name  to the current file
              name even if it can't be restored on editor exit.

       wraplen, wl [0]
              Vi only.  Break lines automatically, the  specified
              number  of  columns  from the left-hand margin.  If
              both the wraplen and wrapmargin  edit  options  are
              set, the wrapmargin value is used.

       wrapmargin, wm [0]
              Vi  only.  Break lines automatically, the specified
              number of columns from the right-hand  margin.   If
              both  the  wraplen  and wrapmargin edit options are
              set, the wrapmargin value is used.

       wrapscan, ws [on]
              Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of
              the file.

       writeany, wa [off]
              Turn off file-overwriting checks.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       COLUMNS
              The  number  of  columns on the screen.  This value
              overrides any system or terminal  specific  values.
              If the COLUMNS environment variable is not set when
              ex/vi runs, or the  columns  option  is  explicitly
              reset  by the user, ex/vi enters the value into the
              environment.

       EXINIT A list of ex startup commands, read if the variable
              NEXINIT is not set.

       HOME   The  user's  home  directory,  used  as the initial
              directory path for the startup ``$HOME/.nexrc'' and
              ``$HOME/.exrc''  files.  This value is also used as
              the default directory for the vi cd command.

       LINES  The number of rows on the screen.  This value over-
              rides  any  system or terminal specific values.  If
              the LINES environment  variable  is  not  set  when
              ex/vi runs, or the lines option is explicitly reset
              by the user, ex/vi enters the value into the  envi-
              ronment.

       NEXINIT
              A list of ex startup commands.

       SHELL  The  user's  shell  of  choice  (see also the shell
              option).

       TERM   The user's terminal type.  The default is the  type
              ``unknown''.   If  the TERM environment variable is
              not set when ex/vi runs,  or  the  term  option  is
              explicitly  reset  by  the  user,  ex/vi enters the
              value into the environment.

       TMPDIR The location used to stored  temporary  files  (see
              also the directory edit option).

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       SIGALRM
              Vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file
              modifications and to display ``busy'' messages when
              operations are likely to take a long time.

       SIGHUP

       SIGTERM
              If the current buffer has changed since it was last
              written in its entirety,  the  editor  attempts  to
              save  the  modified  file so it can be later recov-
              ered.  See the vi/ex Reference manual section enti-
              tled ``Recovery'' for more information.

       SIGINT When  an interrupt occurs, the current operation is
              halted, and  the  editor  returns  to  the  command
              level.   If interrupted during text input, the text
              already input is resolved into the file as  if  the
              text input had been normally terminated.

       SIGWINCH
              The  screen  is  resized.   See the vi/ex Reference
              manual section entitled ``Sizing the  Screen''  for
              more information.

       SIGCONT

       SIGQUIT

       SIGTSTP
              Vi/ex ignores these signals.

FILES
       /bin/sh
              The default user shell.

       /etc/vi.exrc
              System-wide vi startup file.

       /tmp   Temporary file directory.

       /var/tmp/vi.recover
              The default recovery file directory.

       $HOME/.nexrc
              1st  choice for user's home directory startup file.

       $HOME/.exrc
              2nd choice for user's home directory startup  file.

       .nexrc 1st choice for local directory startup file.

       .exrc  2nd choice for local directory startup file.

SEE ALSO
       ctags(1), more(3), curses(3), dbopen(3)

       The ``Vi Quick Reference'' card.

       ``An  Introduction  to Display Editing with Vi'', found in
       the ``UNIX User's Manual Supplementary Documents'' section
       of  both the 4.3BSD and 4.4BSD manual sets.  This document
       is the closest thing available to an introduction  to  the
       vi screen editor.

       ``Ex Reference Manual (Version 3.7)'', found in the ``UNIX
       User's Manual Supplementary Documents''  section  of  both
       the  4.3BSD  and 4.4BSD manual sets.  This document is the
       final reference for the ex editor, as distributed in  most
       historic 4BSD and System V systems.

       ``Edit:  A  tutorial'',  found in the ``UNIX User's Manual
       Supplementary Documents'' section  of  the  4.3BSD  manual
       set.  This document is an introduction to a simple version
       of the ex screen editor.

       ``Ex/Vi Reference Manual'', found  in  the  ``UNIX  User's
       Manual  Supplementary  Documents''  section  of the 4.4BSD
       manual set.  This document is the final reference for  the
       nex/nvi text editors, as distributed in 4.4BSD and 4.4BSD-
       Lite.

       Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with
       nex/nvi in the nvi/USD.doc directory of the nex/nvi source
       code.

       The  files  ``autowrite'',  ``input'',   ``quoting''   and
       ``structures''  found  in the nvi/docs/internals directory
       of the nex/nvi source code.

HISTORY
       The  nex/nvi  replacements  for  the  ex/vi  editor  first
       appeared in 4.4BSD.

STANDARDS
       Nex/nvi is close to IEEE Std1003.2 (``POSIX'').  That doc-
       ument differs from historical ex/vi  practice  in  several
       places; there are changes to be made on both sides.

                         October 10, 1996                       1