LESSKEY(1)                                             LESSKEY(1)

       lesskey - specify key bindings for less

       lesskey [-o output] [input]
       lesskey -V

       Lesskey  is  used  to  specify a set of key bindings to be
       used by less.   The  input  file  is  a  text  file  which
       describes  the  key  bindings,  If  the input file is "-",
       standard input is read.  If no input file is specified,  a
       standard  filename  is used as the name of the input file,
       which depends on the system being used: On  Unix  systems,
       $HOME/.lesskey  is used; on MS-DOS systems, $HOME/_lesskey
       is used; and on OS/2 systems $HOME/lesskey.ini is used, or
       $INIT/lesskey.ini  if $HOME is undefined.  The output file
       is a binary file which is used by less.  If no output file
       is specified, and the environment variable LESSKEY is set,
       the value of LESSKEY is used as the  name  of  the  output
       file.   Otherwise, a standard filename is used as the name
       of the output file, which  depends  on  the  system  being
       used:  On  Unix  and OS-9 systems, $HOME/.less is used; on
       MS-DOS systems, $HOME/_less is used; and on OS/2  systems,
       $HOME/less.ini  is  used,  or  $INIT/less.ini  if $HOME is
       undefined.  If the output  file  already  exists,  lesskey
       will overwrite it.

       The  -V  option causes lesskey to print its version number
       and immediately exit.  If -V is present, other options and
       arguments are ignored.

       The  input  file  consists  of one or more sections.  Each
       section starts with a line that  identifies  the  type  of
       section.  Possible sections are:

              Defines new command keys.

              Defines new line-editing keys.

       #env   Defines environment variables.

       Blank  lines  and  lines which start with a pound sign (#)
       are ignored, except for the special section header  lines.

       The command section begins with the line


       If  the  command section is the first section in the file,
       this line may be omitted.  The command section consists of
       lines of the form:

            string <whitespace> action [extra-string] <newline>

       Whitespace  is  any  sequence of one or more spaces and/or
       tabs.  The string is the command key(s) which  invoke  the
       action.   The  string  may  be  a single command key, or a
       sequence of up to 15 keys.  The action is the name of  the
       less  action,  from the list below.  The characters in the
       string may appear literally, or be prefixed by a caret  to
       indicate  a  control  key.  A backslash followed by one to
       three octal digits may be used to specify a  character  by
       its  octal value.  A backslash followed by b, e, n, r or t
       specifies  BACKSPACE,  ESCAPE,  NEWLINE,  RETURN  or  TAB,
       respectively.  A backslash followed by any other character
       indicates that character is to be taken literally.   Char-
       acters  which must be preceded by backslash include caret,
       space, tab and the backslash itself.

       An action may be followed by an "extra" string.  When such
       a  command  is  entered  while running less, the action is
       performed, and then the extra string is parsed, just as if
       it  were  typed  in  to less.  This feature can be used in
       certain cases to extend the functionality  of  a  command.
       For  example, see the "{" and ":t" commands in the example
       below.  The extra string has a  special  meaning  for  the
       "quit"  action:  when  less  quits, first character of the
       extra string is used as its exit status.

       The following input file describes the set of default com-
       mand keys used by less:

            \r        forw-line
            \n        forw-line
            e         forw-line
            j         forw-line
            ^E        forw-line
            ^N        forw-line
            k         back-line
            y         back-line
            ^Y        back-line
            ^K        back-line
            ^P        back-line
            J         forw-line-force
            K         back-line-force
            Y         back-line-force
            d         forw-scroll
            ^D        forw-scroll
            u         back-scroll
            ^U        back-scroll
            \40       forw-screen
            f         forw-screen
            ^F        forw-screen
            ^V        forw-screen
            b         back-screen
            ^B        back-screen
            \ev       back-screen
            \e\40          forw-screen-force
            z         forw-window
            w         back-window
            F         forw-forever
            \e[       left-scroll
            \e]       right-scroll
            R         repaint-flush
            r         repaint
            ^R        repaint
            ^L        repaint
            g         goto-line
            <         goto-line
            \e<       goto-line
            p         percent
            %         percent
            {         forw-bracket {}
            }         back-bracket {}
            (         forw-bracket ()
            )         back-bracket ()
            [         forw-bracket []
            ]         back-bracket []
            \e^F      forw-bracket
            \e^B      back-bracket
            G         goto-end
            \e>       goto-end
            >         goto-end
            =         status
            ^G        status
            :f        status
            /         forw-search
            ?         back-search
            \e/       forw-search *
            \e?       back-search *
            n         repeat-search
            \en       repeat-search-all
            N         reverse-search
            \eN       reverse-search-all
            \eu       undo-hilite
            m         set-mark
            '         goto-mark
            ^X^X      goto-mark
            E         examine
            :e        examine
            ^X^V      examine
            :n        next-file
            :p        prev-file
            :x        index-file
            -         toggle-option
            :t        toggle-option t
            s         toggle-option o
            _         display-option
            |         pipe
            v         visual
            !         shell
            +         firstcmd
            H         help
            h         help
            V         version
            q         quit
            :q        quit
            :Q        quit
            ZZ        quit

       Commands  specified  by  lesskey  take precedence over the
       default commands.  A default command key may  be  disabled
       by  including  it  in  the  input  file  with  the  action
       "invalid".  Alternatively, a key  may  be  defined  to  do
       nothing  by  using  the  action "noaction".  "noaction" is
       similar to "invalid", but less will give an error beep for
       an  "invalid"  command,  but not for a "noaction" command.
       In addition, ALL  default  commands  may  be  disabled  by
       adding this control line to the input file:


       This  will  cause all default commands to be ignored.  The
       #stop line should be the last line in that section of  the

       Be  aware  that #stop can be dangerous.  Since all default
       commands are disabled, you must  provide  sufficient  com-
       mands  before  the  #stop  line  to  enable  all necessary
       actions.  For example, failure to provide a "quit" command
       can lead to frustration.

       The line-editing section begins with the line:


       This section specifies new key bindings for the line edit-
       ing commands, in a manner similar to the way key  bindings
       for  ordinary  commands are specified in the #command sec-
       tion.  The line-editing section consists of a list of keys
       and actions, one per line as in the example below.

       The  following  input  file  describes  the set of default
       line-editing keys used by less:

            \t        forw-complete
            \17       back-complete
            \e\t      back-complete
            \14       expand
            ^V        literal
            ^A        literal
            \el       right
            \eh       left
            \eb       word-left
            \ew       word-right
            \ei       insert
            \ex       delete
            \e\b      word-backspace
            \e0       home
            \e$       end
            \ek       up
            \ej       down

       The environment variable section begins with the line


       Following this line is  a  list  of  environment  variable
       assignments.   Each  line consists of an environment vari-
       able name, an equals sign (=) and the value to be assigned
       to the environment variable.  White space before and after
       the equals sign is ignored.  Variables  assigned  in  this
       way  are visible only to less.  If a variable is specified
       in the system environment and also in a lesskey file,  the
       value  in the lesskey file takes precedence.  Although the
       lesskey file can be used to override variables set in  the
       environment,  the  main  purpose of assigning variables in
       the lesskey file is simply to have all less  configuration
       information stored in one file.

       The  following input file sets the -i option whenever less
       is run, and specifies the character set to be "latin1":

            LESS = -i
            LESSCHARSET = latin1


       It is not possible to specify special keys, such as  upar-
       row,  in  a  keyboard-independent manner.  The only way to
       specify such keys is to specify the escape sequence  which
       a particular keyboard sends when such a keys is pressed.

       On  MS-DOS  and OS/2 systems, certain keys send a sequence
       of characters which start with a NUL character (0).   This
       NUL  character  should be represented as \340 in a lesskey

       Copyright (c) 1984,1985,1989,1994,1995  Mark Nudelman
       Comments to: markn@fog.net

                      Version 332: 22 Apr 97                    1