ncurses(3X)                                           ncurses(3X)

NAME
       ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package

SYNOPSIS
       #include <curses.h>

DESCRIPTION
       The  ncurses  library  routines  give the user a terminal-
       independent method of updating character screens with rea-
       sonable   optimization.    This  implementation  is  ``new
       curses'' (ncurses) and is  the  approved  replacement  for
       4.4BSD classic curses, which has been discontinued.

       The  ncurses  routines  emulate  the curses(3X) library of
       System V Release 4 UNIX, and the XPG4 curses standard (XSI
       curses)  but the ncurses library is freely redistributable
       in source form.  Differences from the SVr4 curses are sum-
       marized  under  the EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections below and
       described in detail in the EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections of
       individual man pages.

       A  program  using  these  routines must be linked with the
       -lncurses option, or (if it has been generated)  with  the
       debugging  library  -lncurses_g.   (Your system integrator
       may also have installed these libraries  under  the  names
       -lcurses and -lcurses_g.)  The ncurses_g library generates
       trace logs (in a file called 'trace' in the current direc-
       tory) that describe curses actions.

       The  ncurses  package supports: overall screen, window and
       pad manipulation; output to windows and pads; reading ter-
       minal  input;  control  over terminal and curses input and
       output options; environment query routines; color  manipu-
       lation; use of soft label keys; terminfo capabilities; and
       access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.

       To initialize the routines, the routine initscr or newterm
       must  be called before any of the other routines that deal
       with windows and screens are  used.   The  routine  endwin
       must be called before exiting.  To get character-at-a-time
       input without echoing (most interactive,  screen  oriented
       programs  want  this),  the  following  sequence should be
       used:

             initscr(); cbreak(); noecho();

       Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

             nonl();
             intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
             keypad(stdscr, TRUE);

       Before a curses program is run, the tab stops of the  ter-
       minal  should  be  set  and its initialization strings, if
       defined, must be output.  This can be  done  by  executing
       the tput init command after the shell environment variable
       TERM has been exported.  tset(1)  is  usually  responsible
       for doing this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]

       The  ncurses  library  permits manipulation of data struc-
       tures, called windows, which can be  thought  of  as  two-
       dimensional  arrays of characters representing all or part
       of a CRT screen.  A default window called stdscr, which is
       the  size of the terminal screen, is supplied.  Others may
       be created with newwin.

       Note that curses  does  not  handle  overlapping  windows,
       that's  done by the panel(3X) library. This means that you
       can either use stdscr or divide the screen into tiled win-
       dows  and  not  using  stdscr  at all. Mixing the two will
       result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.

       Windows are referred to by variables declared as WINDOW *.
       These   data  structures  are  manipulated  with  routines
       described here and elsewhere in the ncurses manual  pages.
       Among  which  the  most basic routines are move and addch.
       More general versions of these routines are included  with
       names  beginning  with  w,  allowing the user to specify a
       window.  The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.)

       After  using  routines  to manipulate a window, refresh is
       called, telling curses to make the user's CRT screen  look
       like  stdscr.   The characters in a window are actually of
       type chtype, (character and attribute data) so that  other
       information  about  the  character may also be stored with
       each character.

       Special windows  called  pads  may  also  be  manipulated.
       These are windows which are not constrained to the size of
       the screen and whose contents need not be completely  dis-
       played.  See curs_pad(3X) for more information.

       In  addition  to  drawing  characters on the screen, video
       attributes and colors may be supported, causing the  char-
       acters  to show up in such modes as underlined, in reverse
       video, or in color on terminals that support such  display
       enhancements.  Line drawing characters may be specified to
       be output.  On input, curses is  also  able  to  translate
       arrow  and  function  keys  that transmit escape sequences
       into single values.  The video  attributes,  line  drawing
       characters,   and  input  values  use  names,  defined  in
       <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE, and KEY_LEFT.

       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or
       if  the program is executing in a window environment, line
       and column information in the  environment  will  override
       information read by terminfo.  This would effect a program
       running in an AT&T 630 layer, for example, where the  size
       of a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT).

       If  the environment variable TERMINFO is defined, any pro-
       gram using curses checks for a local  terminal  definition
       before  checking  in  the standard place.  For example, if
       TERM is set to att4424, then the compiled terminal defini-
       tion is found in

             /usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424.

       (The a is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid
       creation of huge directories.)  However,  if  TERMINFO  is
       set to $HOME/myterms, curses first checks

             $HOME/myterms/a/att4424,

       and if that fails, it then checks

             /usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424.

       This  is useful for developing experimental definitions or
       when write permission in /usr/share/terminfo is not avail-
       able.

       The  integer  variables  LINES  and  COLS  are  defined in
       <curses.h> and will be filled in by initscr with the  size
       of the screen.  The constants TRUE and FALSE have the val-
       ues 1 and 0, respectively.

       The curses routines also  define  the  WINDOW  *  variable
       curscr which is used for certain low-level operations like
       clearing and redrawing a screen containing  garbage.   The
       curscr can be used in only a few routines.

   Routine and Argument Names
       Many  curses routines have two or more versions.  The rou-
       tines prefixed with w require a window argument.  The rou-
       tines prefixed with p require a pad argument.  Those with-
       out a prefix generally use stdscr.

       The routines prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate
       to  move to before performing the appropriate action.  The
       mv routines imply a call to move before the  call  to  the
       other  routine.  The coordinate y always refers to the row
       (of the window), and x always refers to the  column.   The
       upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument
       and x and y coordinates.  The window  argument  is  always
       specified before the coordinates.

       In  each  case, win is the window affected, and pad is the
       pad affected; win and pad are always pointers to type WIN-
       DOW.

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the
       value TRUE or FALSE; bf is always of type bool.  The vari-
       ables  ch  and attrs below are always of type chtype.  The
       types WINDOW, SCREEN, bool,  and  chtype  are  defined  in
       <curses.h>.   The  type  TERMINAL  is defined in <term.h>.
       All other arguments are integers.

   Routine Name Index
       The following table lists each curses routine and the name
       of  the  manual  page  on which it is described.  Routines
       flagged with `*' are ncurses-specific,  not  described  by
       XPG4 or present in SVr4.

                curses Routine Name   Manual Page Name
                -----------------------------------------
                addch                 curs_addch(3X)
                addchnstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                addchstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                addnstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                addstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                attr_get              curs_attr(3X)
                attr_off              curs_attr(3X)
                attr_on               curs_attr(3X)
                attr_set              curs_attr(3X)
                attroff               curs_attr(3X)
                attron                curs_attr(3X)
                attrset               curs_attr(3X)
                baudrate              curs_termattrs(3X)
                beep                  curs_beep(3X)
                bkgd                  curs_bkgd(3X)
                bkgdset               curs_bkgd(3X)
                border                curs_border(3X)
                box                   curs_border(3X)
                can_change_color      curs_color(3X)
                cbreak                curs_inopts(3X)
                chgat                 curs_attr(3X)
                clear                 curs_clear(3X)
                clearok               curs_outopts(3X)
                clrtobot              curs_clear(3X)
                clrtoeol              curs_clear(3X)
                color_content         curs_color(3X)
                color_set             curs_attr(3X)
                copywin               curs_overlay(3X)
                curs_set              curs_kernel(3X)
                def_prog_mode         curs_kernel(3X)
                def_shell_mode        curs_kernel(3X)
                define_key            define_key(3X)*
                del_curterm           curs_terminfo(3X)
                delay_output          curs_util(3X)
                delch                 curs_delch(3X)
                deleteln              curs_deleteln(3X)
                delscreen             curs_initscr(3X)
                delwin                curs_window(3X)
                derwin                curs_window(3X)
                doupdate              curs_refresh(3X)
                dupwin                curs_window(3X)
                echo                  curs_inopts(3X)
                echochar              curs_addch(3X)
                endwin                curs_initscr(3X)
                erase                 curs_clear(3X)
                erasechar             curs_termattrs(3X)
                filter                curs_util(3X)
                flash                 curs_beep(3X)
                flushinp              curs_util(3X)
                getbegyx              curs_getyx(3X)
                getbkgd               curs_bkgd(3X)
                getch                 curs_getch(3X)
                getmaxyx              curs_getyx(3X)
                getmouse              curs_mouse(3X)*
                getnstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                getparyx              curs_getyx(3X)
                getstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                getsyx                curs_kernel(3X)
                getwin                curs_util(3X)
                getyx                 curs_getyx(3X)
                halfdelay             curs_inopts(3X)
                has_colors            curs_color(3X)
                has_ic                curs_termattrs(3X)
                has_il                curs_termattrs(3X)
                has_key               curs_getch(3X)*
                hline                 curs_border(3X)
                idcok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                idlok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                immedok               curs_outopts(3X)
                inch                  curs_inch(3X)
                inchnstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                inchstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                init_color            curs_color(3X)
                init_pair             curs_color(3X)
                initscr               curs_initscr(3X)
                innstr                curs_instr(3X)
                insch                 curs_insch(3X)
                insdelln              curs_deleteln(3X)
                insertln              curs_deleteln(3X)
                insnstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                insstr                curs_insstr(3X)
                instr                 curs_instr(3X)
                intrflush             curs_inopts(3X)
                is_linetouched        curs_touch(3X)
                is_wintouched         curs_touch(3X)
                isendwin              curs_initscr(3X)
                keyname               curs_util(3X)
                keyok                 keyok(3X)*
                keypad                curs_inopts(3X)
                killchar              curs_termattrs(3X)
                leaveok               curs_outopts(3X)
                longname              curs_termattrs(3X)
                mcprint               curs_print(3X)*
                meta                  curs_inopts(3X)
                mouseinterval         curs_mouse(3X)*
                mousemask             curs_mouse(3X)*
                move                  curs_move(3X)
                mvaddch               curs_addch(3X)
                mvaddchnstr           curs_addchstr(3X)
                mvaddchstr            curs_addchstr(3X)
                mvaddnstr             curs_addstr(3X)
                mvaddstr              curs_addstr(3X)
                mvchgat               curs_attr(3X)
                mvcur                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                mvdelch               curs_delch(3X)
                mvderwin              curs_window(3X)
                mvgetch               curs_getch(3X)
                mvgetnstr             curs_getstr(3X)
                mvgetstr              curs_getstr(3X)
                mvhline               curs_border(3X)
                mvinch                curs_inch(3X)
                mvinchnstr            curs_inchstr(3X)
                mvinchstr             curs_inchstr(3X)
                mvinnstr              curs_instr(3X)
                mvinsch               curs_insch(3X)
                mvinsnstr             curs_insstr(3X)
                mvinsstr              curs_insstr(3X)
                mvinstr               curs_instr(3X)
                mvprintw              curs_printw(3X)
                mvscanw               curs_scanw(3X)
                mvwaddch              curs_addch(3X)
                mvwaddchnstr          curs_addchstr(3X)
                mvwaddchstr           curs_addchstr(3X)
                mvwaddnstr            curs_addstr(3X)
                mvwaddstr             curs_addstr(3X)
                mvwchgat              curs_attr(3X)
                mvwdelch              curs_delch(3X)
                mvwgetch              curs_getch(3X)
                mvwgetnstr            curs_getstr(3X)
                mvwgetstr             curs_getstr(3X)
                mvwhline              curs_border(3X)
                mvwin                 curs_window(3X)
                mvwinch               curs_inch(3X)
                mvwinchnstr           curs_inchstr(3X)
                mvwinchstr            curs_inchstr(3X)
                mvwinnstr             curs_instr(3X)
                mvwinsch              curs_insch(3X)
                mvwinsnstr            curs_insstr(3X)
                mvwinsstr             curs_insstr(3X)
                mvwinstr              curs_instr(3X)
                mvwprintw             curs_printw(3X)
                mvwscanw              curs_scanw(3X)
                mvwvline              curs_border(3X)
                napms                 curs_kernel(3X)
                newpad                curs_pad(3X)
                newterm               curs_initscr(3X)
                newwin                curs_window(3X)
                nl                    curs_outopts(3X)
                nocbreak              curs_inopts(3X)
                nodelay               curs_inopts(3X)
                noecho                curs_inopts(3X)
                nonl                  curs_outopts(3X)
                noqiflush             curs_inopts(3X)
                noraw                 curs_inopts(3X)
                notimeout             curs_inopts(3X)
                overlay               curs_overlay(3X)
                overwrite             curs_overlay(3X)
                pair_content          curs_color(3X)
                pechochar             curs_pad(3X)
                pnoutrefresh          curs_pad(3X)
                prefresh              curs_pad(3X)
                printw                curs_printw(3X)
                putp                  curs_terminfo(3X)
                putwin                curs_util(3X)
                qiflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                raw                   curs_inopts(3X)
                redrawwin             curs_refresh(3X)
                refresh               curs_refresh(3X)
                reset_prog_mode       curs_kernel(3X)
                reset_shell_mode      curs_kernel(3X)
                resetty               curs_kernel(3X)
                resizeterm            resizeterm(3X)*
                restartterm           curs_terminfo(3X)
                ripoffline            curs_kernel(3X)
                savetty               curs_kernel(3X)
                scanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                scr_dump              curs_scr_dump(3X)
                scr_init              curs_scr_dump(3X)
                scr_restore           curs_scr_dump(3X)
                scr_set               curs_scr_dump(3X)
                scrl                  curs_scroll(3X)
                scroll                curs_scroll(3X)
                scrollok              curs_outopts(3X)
                set_curterm           curs_terminfo(3X)
                set_term              curs_initscr(3X)
                setscrreg             curs_outopts(3X)
                setsyx                curs_kernel(3X)
                setterm               curs_terminfo(3X)
                setupterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                slk_attr              curs_slk(3X)*
                slk_attr_off          curs_slk(3X)
                slk_attr_on           curs_slk(3X)
                slk_attr_set          curs_slk(3X)
                slk_attroff           curs_slk(3X)
                slk_attron            curs_slk(3X)
                slk_attrset           curs_slk(3X)
                slk_clear             curs_slk(3X)
                slk_color             curs_slk(3X)
                slk_init              curs_slk(3X)
                slk_label             curs_slk(3X)
                slk_noutrefresh       curs_slk(3X)
                slk_refresh           curs_slk(3X)
                slk_restore           curs_slk(3X)
                slk_set               curs_slk(3X)
                slk_touch             curs_slk(3X)
                standend              curs_attr(3X)
                standout              curs_attr(3X)
                start_color           curs_color(3X)
                subpad                curs_pad(3X)
                subwin                curs_window(3X)
                syncok                curs_window(3X)
                termattrs             curs_termattrs(3X)
                termname              curs_termattrs(3X)
                tgetent               curs_termcap(3X)
                tgetflag              curs_termcap(3X)
                tgetnum               curs_termcap(3X)
                tgetstr               curs_termcap(3X)
                tgoto                 curs_termcap(3X)
                tigetflag             curs_terminfo(3X)
                tigetnum              curs_terminfo(3X)
                tigetstr              curs_terminfo(3X)
                timeout               curs_inopts(3X)
                touchline             curs_touch(3X)
                touchwin              curs_touch(3X)
                tparm                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                tputs                 curs_termcap(3X)
                tputs                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                typeahead             curs_inopts(3X)
                unctrl                curs_util(3X)
                ungetch               curs_getch(3X)
                ungetmouse            curs_mouse(3X)*
                untouchwin            curs_touch(3X)
                use_default_colors    dft_fgbg(3X)*
                use_env               curs_util(3X)
                vidattr               curs_terminfo(3X)
                vidputs               curs_terminfo(3X)
                vline                 curs_border(3X)
                vw_printw             curs_printw(3X)
                vw_scanw              curs_scanw(3X)
                vwprintw              curs_printw(3X)
                vwscanw               curs_scanw(3X)
                waddch                curs_addch(3X)
                waddchnstr            curs_addchstr(3X)
                waddchstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                waddnstr              curs_addstr(3X)
                waddstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                wattr_get             curs_attr(3X)
                wattr_off             curs_attr(3X)
                wattr_on              curs_attr(3X)
                wattr_set             curs_attr(3X)
                wattroff              curs_attr(3X)
                wattron               curs_attr(3X)
                wattrset              curs_attr(3X)
                wbkgd                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                wbkgdset              curs_bkgd(3X)
                wborder               curs_border(3X)
                wchgat                curs_attr(3X)
                wclear                curs_clear(3X)
                wclrtobot             curs_clear(3X)
                wclrtoeol             curs_clear(3X)
                wcolor_set            curs_attr(3X)
                wcursyncup            curs_window(3X)
                wdelch                curs_delch(3X)
                wdeleteln             curs_deleteln(3X)
                wechochar             curs_addch(3X)
                wenclose              curs_mouse(3X)*
                werase                curs_clear(3X)
                wgetch                curs_getch(3X)
                wgetnstr              curs_getstr(3X)
                wgetstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                whline                curs_border(3X)
                winch                 curs_inch(3X)
                winchnstr             curs_inchstr(3X)
                winchstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                winnstr               curs_instr(3X)
                winsch                curs_insch(3X)
                winsdelln             curs_deleteln(3X)
                winsertln             curs_deleteln(3X)
                winsnstr              curs_insstr(3X)
                winsstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                winstr                curs_instr(3X)
                wmouse_trafo          curs_mouse(3X)
                wmove                 curs_move(3X)
                wnoutrefresh          curs_refresh(3X)
                wprintw               curs_printw(3X)
                wredrawln             curs_refresh(3X)
                wrefresh              curs_refresh(3X)
                wresize               wresize(3X)*
                wscanw                curs_scanw(3X)
                wscrl                 curs_scroll(3X)
                wsetscrreg            curs_outopts(3X)
                wstandend             curs_attr(3X)
                wstandout             curs_attr(3X)
                wsyncdown             curs_window(3X)
                wsyncup               curs_window(3X)
                wtimeout              curs_inopts(3X)
                wtouchln              curs_touch(3X)
                wvline                curs_border(3X)

RETURN VALUE
       Routines  that  return  an integer return ERR upon failure
       and an integer value other than ERR upon  successful  com-
       pletion,  unless  otherwise  noted in the routine descrip-
       tions.

       All macros return the  value  of  the  w  version,  except
       setscrreg,  wsetscrreg,  getyx,  getbegyx,  getmaxyx.  The
       return values of setscrreg, wsetscrreg,  getyx,  getbegyx,
       and getmaxyx are undefined (i.e., these should not be used
       as the right-hand side of assignment statements).

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.

ENVIRONMENT
       The following environment symbols are useful for customiz-
       ing the runtime behavior of the ncurses library.  The most
       important ones have been already discussed in detail.

       BAUDRATE
            The debugging library checks this environment  symbol
            when the application has redirected output to a file.
            The symbol's numeric value is used for the  baudrate.
            If  no value is found ncurses uses 9600.  This allows
            testers to construct repeatable test-cases that  take
            into account costs that depend on baudrate.

       CC   When set, change occurrences of the command_character
            (i.e., the cmdch capability) of the  loaded  terminfo
            entries  to  the value of this symbol.  Very few ter-
            minfo entries provide this feature.

       COLUMNS
            Specify  the  width  of  the  screen  in  characters.
            Applications  running in a windowing environment usu-
            ally are able to obtain the width of  the  window  in
            which  they  are  executing.  If neither the $COLUMNS
            value nor the terminal's screen  size  is  available,
            ncurses  uses  the size which may be specified in the
            terminfo database (i.e., the cols capability).

            It is important that your application use  a  correct
            size  for  the  screen.   However, this is not always
            possible because your application may be running on a
            host  which  does  not honor NAWS (Negotiations About
            Window Size), or because you are temporarily  running
            as another user.

            Either  COLUMNS  or  LINES  symbols  may be specified
            independently.  This is mainly useful  to  circumvent
            legacy  misfeatures  of  terminal descriptions, e.g.,
            xterm which commonly specifies a 65 line screen.  For
            best  results, lines and cols should not be specified
            in a terminal description for terminals which are run
            as emulations.

            Use the use_env function to disable this feature.

       ESCDELAY
            Specifies  the total time, in milliseconds, for which
            ncurses will await  a  character  sequence,  e.g.,  a
            function  key.  The default value, 1000 milliseconds,
            is enough for most uses.  However, it is made a vari-
            able to accommodate unusual applications.

            The most common instance where you may wish to change
            this value is to work with slow hosts, e.g.,  running
            on  a  network.   If  the host cannot read characters
            rapidly enough, it will have the same  effect  as  if
            the  terminal did not send characters rapidly enough.
            The library will still see a timeout.

            Note that xterm mouse events are built up from  char-
            acter  sequences  received  from  the xterm.  If your
            application makes heavy use of multiple-clicking, you
            may  wish  to lengthen this default value because the
            timeout applies to the composed multi-click event  as
            well as the individual clicks.

       HOME Tells  ncurses where your home directory is.  That is
            where  it  may  read  and  write  auxiliary  terminal
            descriptions:

            $HOME/.termcap
            $HOME/.terminfo

       LINES
            Like  COLUMNS,  specify  the  height of the screen in
            characters.  See COLUMNS for a detailed  description.

       MOUSE_BUTTONS_123
            This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies
            the order of buttons on the mouse.   OS/2  numbers  a
            3-button mouse inconsistently from other platforms:

            1 = left
            2 = right
            3 = middle.

            This symbol lets you customize the mouse.  The symbol
            must be three numeric digits 1-3 in any order,  e.g.,
            123  or  321.   If  it is not specified, ncurses uses
            132.

       NCURSES_NO_PADDING
            Most of the terminal  descriptions  in  the  terminfo
            database  are  written for real "hardware" terminals.
            Many people use terminal emulators  which  run  in  a
            windowing  environment  and use curses-based applica-
            tions.  Terminal emulators can duplicate all  of  the
            important aspects of a hardware terminal, but they do
            not have the same limitations.  The chief  limitation
            of  a  hardware  terminal from the standpoint of your
            application is the management of dataflow, i.e., tim-
            ing.  Unless a hardware terminal is interfaced into a
            terminal concentrator (which does flow  control),  it
            (or  your application) must manage dataflow, prevent-
            ing overruns.  The  cheapest  solution  (no  hardware
            cost) is for your program to do this by pausing after
            operations that the terminal  does  slowly,  such  as
            clearing the display.

            As  a  result,  many terminal descriptions (including
            the vt100) have delay times embedded.  You  may  wish
            to  use  these  descriptions, but not want to pay the
            performance penalty.

            Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING symbol to disable all  but
            mandatory  padding.   Mandatory  padding is used as a
            part of special control sequences such as flash.

       NCURSES_NO_SETBUF
            Normally ncurses enables buffered output during  ter-
            minal  initialization.   This  is  done  (as  in SVr4
            curses) for performance reasons.   For  testing  pur-
            poses, both of ncurses and certain applications, this
            feature    is    made    optional.     Setting    the
            NCURSES_NO_SETBUF variable disables output buffering,
            leaving the output  in  the  original  (usually  line
            buffered) mode.

       NCURSES_TRACE
            During  initialization, the ncurses debugging library
            checks the NCURSES_TRACE symbol.  If it  is  defined,
            to a numeric value, ncurses calls the trace function,
            using that value as the argument.

            The argument values, which are defined  in  curses.h,
            provide  several  types of information.  When running
            with traces enabled, your application will write  the
            file trace to the current directory.

       TERM Denotes  your  terminal  type.  Each terminal type is
            distinct, though many are similar.

       TERMCAP
            If the ncurses library has been configured with term-
            cap  support,  ncurses  will  check  for a terminal's
            description in termcap form if it is not available in
            the terminfo database.

            The   TERMCAP   symbol  contains  either  a  terminal
            description (with newlines stripped out), or  a  file
            name  telling  where  the  information denoted by the
            TERM symbol  exists.   In  either  case,  setting  it
            directs  ncurses  to  ignore the usual place for this
            information, e.g., /etc/termcap.

       TERMINFO
            Overrides the directory in which ncurses searches for
            your terminal description.  This is the simplest, but
            not the only way to change the list  of  directories.
            The complete list of directories in order follows:

            -  the last directory to which ncurses wrote, if any,
               is searched first.

            -  the directory specified by the TERMINFO symbol

            -  $HOME/.terminfo

            -  directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS symbol

            -  one or more directories whose names are configured
               and  compiled  into  the  ncurses  library,  e.g.,
               /usr/share/terminfo

       TERMINFO_DIRS
            Specifies a list of directories to search for  termi-
            nal  descriptions.   The  list is separated by colons
            (i.e., ":").  All of the terminal descriptions are in
            terminfo  form,  which makes a subdirectory named for
            the first letter of the terminal names therein.

       TERMPATH
            If TERMCAP does not hold a  file  name  then  ncurses
            checks  the TERMPATH symbol.  This is a list of file-
            names  separated  by  colons  (i.e.,  ":").   If  the
            TERMPATH  symbol  is  not  set,  ncurses looks in the
            files   /etc/termcap,   /usr/share/misc/termcap   and
            $HOME/.termcap, in that order.

FILES
       /usr/share/tabset
            directory  containing  initialization  files  for the
            terminal capability database /usr/share/terminfo ter-
            minal capability database

SEE ALSO
       terminfo(5)  and  3X  pages  whose names begin "curs_" for
       detailed routine descriptions.

EXTENSIONS
       The  ncurses  library  can  be  compiled  with  an  option
       (-DUSE_GETCAP) that falls back to the old-style /etc/term-
       cap file if the terminal setup code cannot find a terminfo
       entry  corresponding  to TERM.  Use of this feature is not
       recommended, as it essentially includes an entire  termcap
       compiler  in the ncurses startup code, at significant cost
       in core and startup cycles.

       The ncurses  library  includes  facilities  for  capturing
       mouse  events  on certain terminals (including xterm). See
       the curs_mouse(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for responding  to
       window  resizing  events,  e.g., when running in an xterm.
       See the resizeterm(3X) and wresize(3X)  manual  pages  for
       details.   In addition, the library may be configured with
       a SIGWINCH handler.

       The ncurses library extends the fixed set of function  key
       capabilities  of  terminals  by  allowing  the application
       designer to define additional key  sequences  at  runtime.
       See  the  define_key(3X)  and  keyok(3X)  manual pages for
       details.

       The ncurses library can exploit the capabilities of termi-
       nals  which  implement the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and SGR 49 con-
       trols, which allow an application to reset the terminal to
       its  original  foreground and background colors.  From the
       users' perspective, the application is able to  draw  col-
       ored  text  on  a  background  whose color is set indepen-
       dently, providing better  control  over  color  contrasts.
       See the use_default_colors(3X) manual page for details.

       The  ncurses  library  includes  a  function for directing
       application output to a printer attached to  the  terminal
       device.  See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

PORTABILITY
       The  ncurses  library is intended to be BASE-level confor-
       mant with the XSI Curses standard.   Certain  portions  of
       the  EXTENDED  XSI  Curses  functionality (including color
       support) are supported.  The following EXTENDED XSI Curses
       calls  in  support  of wide (multibyte) characters are not
       yet implemented: add_wch, add_wchnstr, add_wchstr,  addnw-
       str,  addwstr,  bkgrnd,  bkgrndset,  border_set,  box_set,
       echo_wchar,  erasewchar,  get_wch,  get_wstr,   getbkgrnd,
       getcchar,   getn_wstr,   getwchtype,   hline_set,  in_wch,
       in_wchnstr,  in_wchstr,   innwstr,   ins_nwstr,   ins_wch,
       ins_wstr,  inwchnstr,  inwchstr,  inwstr,  key_name, kill-
       wchar, mvadd_wch, mvadd_wchnstr, mvadd_wchstr, mvaddnwstr,
       mvaddwstr,   mvget_wch,   mvget_wstr,   mvgetn_wstr,  mvh-
       line_set,  mvin_wch,  mvinnwstr,  mvins_nwstr,  mvins_wch,
       mvins_wstr, mvinwchnstr, mvinwchstr, mvinwchstr, mvinwstr,
       mvvline_set,  mvwadd_wch,  mvwadd_wchnstr,  mvwadd_wchstr,
       mvwaddnwstr,     mvwaddwstr,     mvwget_ch,    mvwget_wch,
       mvwget_wstr,   mvwgetn_wstr,   mvwhline_set,    mvwin_wch,
       mvwin_wchnstr,   mvwin_wchstr,  mvwinnwstr,  mvwins_nwstr,
       mvwins_wch, mvwins_wstr, mvwinwchnstr.   mvwinwstr,  mvwv-
       line_set,  pecho_wchar,  setcchar,  slk_wset,  term_attrs,
       unget_wch,  vhline_set,  vid_attr,  vid_puts,   vline_set,
       wadd_wch,  wadd_wchnstr, wadd_wchstr, waddnwstr, waddwstr,
       waddwstr, wbkgrnd,  wbkgrndset,  wbkgrndset,  wborder_set,
       wecho_wchar, wecho_wchar, wget_wch, wget_wstr, wgetbkgrnd,
       wgetn_wstr, whline_set, win_wch, win_wchnstr,  win_wchstr,
       winnwstr,  wins_nwstr,  wins_wch,  wins_wstr,  winwchnstr,
       winwchstr, winwstr, wunctrl, wvline_set,

       A small number of local differences (that  is,  individual
       differences  between the XSI Curses and ncurses calls) are
       described in  PORTABILITY  sections  of  the  library  man
       pages.

       The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor is it present
       in SVr4.  See the curs_getch(3X) manual page for  details.

       The  routine  slk_attr is not part of XPG4, nor is it pre-
       sent in  SVr4.   See  the  curs_slk(3X)  manual  page  for
       details.

       The  routines getmouse, mousemask, ungetmouse, mouseinter-
       val, and wenclose relating to mouse  interfacing  are  not
       part  of  XPG4,  nor  are  they  present in SVr4.  See the
       curs_mouse(3X) manual page for details.

       The routine mcprint was not present in any previous curses
       implementation.   See  the  curs_print(3X) manual page for
       details.

       The routine wresize is not part of XPG4, nor is it present
       in SVr4.  See the wresize(3X) manual page for details.

       In  historic curses versions, delays embedded in the capa-
       bilities cr, ind, cub1, ff and tab activated corresponding
       delay  bits  in  the UNIX tty driver.  In this implementa-
       tion, all padding is done by NUL sends.   This  method  is
       slightly  more expensive, but narrows the interface to the
       UNIX kernel  significantly  and  increases  the  package's
       portability correspondingly.

       In  the  XSI  standard  and  SVr4 manual pages, many entry
       points have prototype arguments of the for char *const (or
       cchar_t  *const,  or  wchar_t  *const,  or  void  *const).
       Depending on one's interpretation of the ANSI  C  standard
       (see  section  3.5.4.1), these declarations are either (a)
       meaningless, or (b) meaningless and illegal.  The declara-
       tion const char *x is a modifiable pointer to unmodifiable
       data, but char *const x' is  an  unmodifiable  pointer  to
       modifiable  data.  Given that C passes arguments by value,
       <type> *const as a formal type is at best  dubious.   Some
       compilers  choke  on  the  prototypes.  Therefore, in this
       implementation, they have been changed to const  <type>  *
       globally.

NOTES
       The  header  file  <curses.h>  automatically  includes the
       header files <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.

       If standard output from a ncurses program  is  re-directed
       to  something  which  is not a tty, screen updates will be
       directed to standard error.  This was an undocumented fea-
       ture of AT&T System V Release 3 curses.

AUTHORS
       Zeyd  M.  Ben-Halim,  Eric  S.  Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.
       Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.

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