OD(1)                                                       OD(1)

NAME
       od - dump files in octal and other formats

SYNOPSIS
       od  [-abcdfhiloxv]  [-s[bytes]] [-w[bytes]] [-A radix] [-j
       bytes]   [-N   bytes]   [-t   type]   [--skip-bytes=bytes]
       [--address-radix=radix]    [--read-bytes=bytes]    [--for-
       mat=type]    [--output-duplicates]     [--strings[=bytes]]
       [--width[=bytes]]   [--traditional]  [--help]  [--version]
       [file...]

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page documents the  GNU  version  of  od.   od
       writes  to  the  standard output the contents of the given
       files, or of the standard input if the name `-' is  given.
       Each  line  of  the  output  consists of the offset in the
       input file in the leftmost column of each  line,  followed
       by  one or more columns of data from the file, in a format
       controlled by the options.  By default, od prints the file
       offsets  in octal and the file data as two-byte octal num-
       bers.

   OPTIONS
       -A, --address-radix=radix
              Select the base in which file offsets are  printed.
              radix can be one of the following:

              d      decimal

              o      octal

              x      hexadecimal

              n      none (do not print offsets)

       The default is octal.

       -j, --skip-bytes=bytes
              Skip  bytes input bytes before formatting and writ-
              ing.  If bytes begins with  `0x'  or  `0X',  it  is
              interpreted in hexadecimal; otherwise, if it begins
              with `0', in octal; otherwise, in decimal.  Append-
              ing  `b' multiplies it by 512, `k' by 1024, and `m'
              by 1048576.

       -N, --read-bytes=bytes
              Only output up to bytes bytes of each  input  file.
              Any  prefixes and suffixes on bytes are interpreted
              as for the -j option.

       -t, --format=type
              Select the format in which to output the file data.
              type  is  a string of one or more of the below type
              indicator characters.  If you include more than one
              type indicator character in a single type string or
              use this option more than once, od writes one  copy
              of  each  output  line using each of the data types
              that you specified, in the order  that  you  speci-
              fied.

              a      named character

              c      ASCII character or backslash escape

              d      signed decimal

              f      floating point

              o      octal

              u      unsigned decimal

              x      hexadecimal

       Except  for  types `a' and `c', you can specify the number
       of bytes to use in interpreting each number in  the  given
       data type by following the type indicator character with a
       decimal integer.  Alternately, you can specify the size of
       one  of  the C compiler's built-in data types by following
       the type indicator character with  one  of  the  following
       characters.  For integers (d, o, u, x):

              C      char

              S      short

              I      int

              L      long

       For floating point (f):

              F      float

              D      double

              L      long double

       -v, --output-duplicates
              Output  consecutive  lines  that are identical.  By
              default, when two or more consecutive output  lines
              would be equal, od outputs only the first line, and
              puts just an asterisk  on  the  following  line  to
              indicate that identical lines have been elided.

       -s, --strings[=bytes]
              Instead  of  the  normal output, output only string
              constants in the input, which are a run of at least
              bytes  ASCII  graphic  (or  formatting) characters,
              terminated by a  NUL.   If  bytes  is  omitted,  it
              defaults to 3.

       -w, --width[=bytes]
              The  number  of  input  bytes  to format per output
              line.  It must be a multiple of  the  least  common
              multiple of the sizes associated with the specified
              output types.  If bytes is omitted, it defaults  to
              32.   If  this  option is not given, it defaults to
              16.

       --help Print a usage message and exit with a  status  code
              indicating success.

       --version
              Print  version  information on standard output then
              exit.

       The next several options map  the  old,  pre-POSIX  format
       specification  options  to  the corresponding POSIX format
       specs.  GNU od accepts any combination of  old-  and  new-
       style options.  Format specification options accumulate.

       -a     Output as named characters.  Equivalent to -t a.

       -b     Output as octal bytes.  Equivalent to -t oC.

       -c     Output  as  ASCII  characters or backslash escapes.
              Equivalent to -t c.

       -d     Output as unsigned decimal shorts.   Equivalent  to
              -t u2.

       -f     Output as floats.  Equivalent to -t fF.

       -h     Output as hexadecimal shorts.  Equivalent to -t x2.

       -i     Output as decimal shorts.  Equivalent to -t d2.

       -l     Output as decimal longs.  Equivalent to -t d4.

       -o     Output as octal shorts.  Equivalent to -t o2.

       -x     Output as hexadecimal shorts.  Equivalent to -t x2.

       --traditional
              Recognize  the  pre-POSIX non-option arguments that
              some older versions of od accepted.  The  following
              syntax
              od     --traditional     [file]    [[+]offset[.][b]
              [[+]label[.][b]]]
              can be  used  to  specify  at  most  one  file  and
              optional  arguments  specifying  an  offset  and  a
              pseudo-start address, label.  By default, offset is
              interpreted  as an octal number specifying how many
              input bytes to skip before formatting and  writing.
              The  optional  trailing  decimal  point  forces the
              interpretation of offset as a decimal  number.   If
              no  decimal is specified and the offset begins with
              `0x' or `0x' it is  interpreted  as  a  hexadecimal
              number.   If there is a trailing `b', the number of
              bytes skipped will be  offset  multiplied  by  512.
              The label argument is interpreted just like offset,
              but it specifies an  initial  pseudo-address.   The
              pseudo  addresses are displayed in parentheses fol-
              lowing any normal address.

FSF                     GNU Text Utilities                      1