SCREEN(1)                                               SCREEN(1)

       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes  a
       physical  terminal  between  several  processes (typically
       interactive shells).  Each virtual terminal  provides  the
       functions  of  a DEC VT100 terminal and, in addition, sev-
       eral control functions from the ISO 6492  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and
       support for multiple character sets).  There is a  scroll-
       back  history buffer for each virtual terminal and a copy-
       and-paste  mechanism  that  allows  moving  text   regions
       between windows.

       When  screen  is called, it creates a single window with a
       shell in it (or the specified command) and then  gets  out
       of  your  way  so that you can use the program as you nor-
       mally would.  Then, at any time, you can create new (full-
       screen)  windows  with  other  programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list  of  win-
       dows,  turn output logging on and off, copy-and-paste text
       between  windows,  view  the  scrollback  history,  switch
       between windows in whatever manner you wish, etc. All win-
       dows run their programs  completely  independent  of  each
       other.  Programs continue to run when their window is cur-
       rently not visible and even when the whole screen  session
       is detached from the user's terminal.  When a program ter-
       minates, screen (per default) kills the window  that  con-
       tained it.  If this window was in the foreground, the dis-
       play switches to the previous window; if  none  are  left,
       screen exits.

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the
       current window.  The only exception to  this  is  the  one
       keystroke that is used to initiate a command to the window
       manager.  By default, each command begins with a control-a
       (abbreviated  C-a  from  now  on),  and is followed by one
       other keystroke.  The command character and  all  the  key
       bindings  can be fully customized to be anything you like,
       though they are always two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-"  to  mean  con-
       trol.   Please use the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-
       a") as arguments to e.g. the  escape  command  or  the  -e
       option.   Screen will also print out control characters in
       caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is  to  type  "C-a
       c".   This  creates  a  new  window  running  a  shell and
       switches to that window  immediately,  regardless  of  the
       state of the process running in the current window.  Simi-
       larly, you can create a new window with a  custom  command
       in it by first binding the command to a keystroke (in your
       .screenrc file or at the "C-a :" command  line)  and  then
       using  it just like the "C-a c" command.  In addition, new
       windows can be created by running a command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a  previously  created  window.
       This will not run another copy of screen, but will instead
       supply the command name and its arguments  to  the  window
       manager  (specified  in the $STY environment variable) who
       will use it to create the new window.  The  above  example
       would  start  the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch
       to its window.

       If "/etc/utmp"  is  writable  by  screen,  an  appropriate
       record  will  be written to this file for each window, and
       removed when the window is terminated.  This is useful for
       working with "talk", "script", "shutdown", "rsend", "sccs"
       and other similar programs  that  use  the  utmp  file  to
       determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your
       terminal, the terminal's own record is  removed  from  the
       utmp file. See also "C-a L".

       Before  you  begin  to use screen you'll need to make sure
       you have correctly selected your terminal  type,  just  as
       you  would  for  any other termcap/terminfo program.  (You
       can do this by using tset for example.)

       If you're impatient and want to get started without  doing
       a  lot more reading, you should remember this one command:
       "C-a ?".  Typing these two characters will display a  list
       of  the available screen commands and their bindings. Each
       keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT  KEY  BIND-
       INGS".  The  manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the
       contents of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is  a  "true"  auto-margin  terminal  (it
       doesn't  allow  the  last  position  on  the  screen to be
       updated without scrolling the screen) consider  to  use  a
       version of your terminal's termcap that has automatic mar-
       gins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and  optimal
       update  of the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals
       nowadays have  "magic"  margins  (automatic  margins  plus
       usable last column). This is the VT100 style type and per-
       fectly suited for screen.  If all you've got is  a  "true"
       auto-margin terminal screen will be content to use it, but
       updating a character put into the  last  position  on  the
       screen may not be possible until the screen scrolls or the
       character is moved into a safe position in some other way.
       This  delay  can  be  shortened  by  using a terminal with
       insert-character capability.

       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions)
            in  each window's termcap, even if screen must redraw
            parts of the display in order to  implement  a  func-

       -A   Adapt  the  sizes  of  all windows to the size of the
            current  terminal.   By  default,  screen  tries   to
            restore its old window sizes when attaching to resiz-
            able terminals (those with "WS" in  its  description,
            e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override   the   default   configuration   file  from
            "$HOME/.screenrc" to file.

       -d|-D []
            does not start screen,  but  detaches  the  elsewhere
            running  screen  session.  It  has the same effect as
            typing "C-a d" from screen's controlling terminal. -D
            is  the  equivalent  to  the power detach key.  If no
            session can be detached, this option is  ignored.  In
            combination  with  the  -r/-R  option  more  powerful
            effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach a session  and  if  necessary  detach  it

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or even
               create it first.

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or cre-
               ate  it.  Use  the  first session if more than one
               session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary detach and logout
               remotely first.

       -D -R   Attach  here  and  now. In detail this means: If a
               session is running, then  reattach.  If  necessary
               detach  and  logout remotely first.  If it was not
               running create it and notify the user. This is the
               author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach  here and now. Whatever that means, just do

            Note: It is always a good idea to check the status of
            your sessions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be x and the char-
            acter generating a literal  command  character  to  y
            (when   typed  after  the  command  character).   The
            default is "C-a" and `a', which can be  specified  as
            "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option
            sets the default command character.  In  a  multiuser
            session all users added will start off with this com-
            mand character. But when attaching to an already run-
            ning  session,  this  option changes only the command
            character of the  attaching  user.   This  option  is
            equivalent  to  either  the  commands  "defescape" or
            "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns flow-control on, off, or  "automatic  switching
            mode".   This  can  also be defined through the "def-
            flow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback  buffer  to  be  num
            lines high.

       -i   will  cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to inter-
            rupt the display immediately when flow-control is on.
            See the "defflow" .screenrc command for details.  The
            use of this option is discouraged.

       -l and -ln
            turns login mode on or off (for /etc/utmp  updating).
            This  can  also  be  defined  through  the "deflogin"
            .screenrc command.

       -ls and -list
            does  not  start  screen,  but  prints  a   list   of
    strings  identifying  your  screen ses-
            sions.  Sessions marked  `detached'  can  be  resumed
            with "screen -r". Those marked `attached' are running
            and have a controlling terminal. If the session  runs
            in  multiuser  mode,  it  is marked `multi'. Sessions
            marked as `unreachable' either live  on  a  different
            host  or  are `dead'.  An unreachable session is con-
            sidered dead, when its name matches either  the  name
            of  the  local  host,  or the specified parameter, if
            any.  See the -r flag for a description how  to  con-
            struct  matches.  Sessions marked as `dead' should be
            thoroughly checked  and  removed.   Ask  your  system
            administrator  if  you  are not sure. Remove sessions
            with the -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen your auto-margin terminal has a writable
            last-position on the screen.  This can also be set in
            your .screenrc by specifying `LP' in a "termcap" com-

       -m   causes  screen  to  ignore the $STY environment vari-
            able. With "screen -m" creation of a new  session  is
            enforced,  regardless  whether  screen is called from
            within another screen session or not. This flag has a
            special meaning in connection with the `-d' option:

       -m -d   Start  screen  in  "detached" mode. This creates a
               new session but doesn't attach to it. This is use-
               ful for system startup scripts.

       -m -D   This  also  starts  screen in "detached" mode, but
               doesn't fork a new process. The command  exits  if
               the session terminates.

       -O   selects  a more optimal output mode for your terminal
            rather than true VT100 emulation (only affects  auto-
            margin terminals without `LP').  This can also be set
            in your .screenrc by specifying `OP' in  a  "termcap"

       -q   Suppress  printing  of error messages. In combination
            with "-ls" the exit value is as follows: 9  indicates
            a  directory  without sessions. 10 indicates a direc-
            tory with running but not attachable sessions. 11 (or
            more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.  In com-
            bination with "-r" the exit value is as  follows:  10
            indicates  that there is no session to resume. 12 (or
            more) indicates that there are 2 (or  more)  sessions
            to resume and you should specify which one to choose.
            In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
            resumes a detached screen session.  No other  options
            (except  combinations  with  -d/-D) may be specified,
            though an optional prefix of  [pid.]  may  be
            needed   to  distinguish  between  multiple  detached
            screen sessions.  The second form is used to  connect
            to  another  user's screen session which runs in mul-
            tiuser mode. This indicates that screen  should  look
            for   sessions  in  another  user's  directory.  This
            requires setuid-root.

       -R   attempts to resume the first detached screen  session
            it  finds.   If  successful,  all  other command-line
            options are ignored.  If no detached session  exists,
            starts  a  new  session  using the specified options,
            just as if -R had not been specified. The  option  is
            set  by  default  if  screen is run as a login-shell.
            For combinations with the -d/-D option see there.

       -s   sets the default  shell  to  the  program  specified,
            instead  of  the  value  in  the environment variable
            $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not defined).  This can  also
            be defined through the "shell" .screenrc command.

       -S sessionname
            When  creating a new session, this option can be used
            to specify a meaningful name for  the  session.  This
            name  identifies  the  session for "screen -list" and
            "screen  -r"  actions.  It  substitutes  the  default
            [] suffix.

       -t name
            sets  the  title  (a.k.a.)  for  the default shell or
            specified  program.   See   also   the   "shelltitle"
            .screenrc command.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does  the same as "screen -ls", but removes destroyed
            sessions instead  of  marking  them  as  `dead'.   An
            unreachable session is considered dead, when its name
            matches either the name of the  local  host,  or  the
            explicitly  given parameter, if any.  See the -r flag
            for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen session. (Multi  dis-
            play mode).

       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" fol-
       lowed by one other character.  For your  convenience,  all
       commands  that  are  bound  to lower-case letters are also
       bound to their control character  counterparts  (with  the
       exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well as
       "C-a C-c" can be used to  create  a  window.  See  section
       "CUSTOMIZATION" for a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a '
       C-a "       (select)      Prompt for a window name or num-
                                 ber to switch to.

       C-a 0       (select 0)
        ...           ...
       C-a 9       (select 9)
       C-a -       (select -)    Switch to window number 0  -  9,
                                 or to the blank window.

       C-a tab     (focus)       Switch  the  input  focus to the
                                 next region.

       C-a C-a     (other)       Toggle to the  window  displayed
                                 previously.    Note   that  this
                                 binding defaults to the  command
                                 character  typed  twice,  unless
                                 overridden.   For  instance,  if
                                 you  use the option "-e]x", this
                                 command becomes "]]".

       C-a a       (meta)        Send the command character (C-a)
                                 to window. See escape command.

       C-a A       (title)       Allow  the  user to enter a name
                                 for the current window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b     (break)       Send a break to window.

       C-a B       (pow_break)   Reopen  the  terminal  line  and
                                 send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c     (screen)      Create a new window with a shell
                                 and switch to that window.

       C-a C       (clear)       Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d     (detach)      Detach screen from  this  termi-

       C-a D D     (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f     (flow)        Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F       (fit)         Resize the window to the current
                                 region size.

       C-a C-g     (vbell)       Toggles  screen's  visual   bell

       C-a h       (hardcopy)    Write  a hardcopy of the current
                                 window to the file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H       (log)         Begins/ends  logging of the cur-
                                 rent window to the file "screen-

       C-a i
       C-a C-i     (info)        Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k     (kill)        Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l     (redisplay)   Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L       (login)       Toggle  this windows login slot.
                                 Available only if screen is con-
                                 figured   to   update  the  utmp

       C-a m
       C-a C-m     (lastmsg)     Repeat  the  last  message  dis-
                                 played in the message line.

       C-a M       (monitor)     Toggles  monitoring  of the cur-
                                 rent window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n     (next)        Switch to the next window.

       C-a N       (number)      Show the number (and  title)  of
                                 the current window.

       C-a backspace
       C-a h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p     (prev)        Switch  to  the  previous window
                                 (opposite of C-a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q     (xon)         Send a control-q to the  current

       C-a Q       (only)        Delete  all regions but the cur-
                                 rent one.

       C-a r
       C-a C-r     (wrap)        Toggle  the   current   window's
                                 line-wrap setting (turn the cur-
                                 rent window's automatic  margins
                                 on and off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s     (xoff)        Send  a control-s to the current

       C-a S       (split)       Split the  current  region  into
                                 two new ones.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t     (time)        Show system information.

       C-a v       (version)     Display the version and compila-
                                 tion date.

       C-a C-v     (digraph)     Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w     (windows)     Show a list of window.

       C-a W       (width)       Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x     (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X       (remove)      Kill the current region.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z     (suspend)     Suspend  screen.   Your   system
                                 must  support BSD-style job-con-

       C-a Z       (reset)       Reset the  virtual  terminal  to
                                 its "power-on" values.

       C-a .       (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.

       C-a ?       (help)        Show key bindings.

       C-a C-\     (quit)        Kill  all  windows and terminate

       C-a :       (colon)       Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc     (copy)        Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a ]       (paste .)     Write the contents of the  paste
                                 buffer to the stdin queue of the
                                 current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }       (history)     Copy and paste a previous  (com-
                                 mand) line.

       C-a >       (writebuf)    Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <       (readbuf)     Reads  the  screen-exchange file
                                 into the paste buffer.

       C-a =       (removebuf)   Removes the file used by  C-a  <
                                 and C-a >.

       C-a ,       (license)     Shows  where  screen comes from,
                                 where it went to and why you can
                                 use it.

       C-a _       (silence)     Start/stop  monitoring  the cur-
                                 rent window for inactivity.

       C-a *       (displays)    Show a listing of all  currently
                                 attached displays.

       The "socket directory" defaults either to $HOME/.screen or
       simply to /tmp/screens or preferably to /usr/local/screens
       chosen  at  compile-time.  If  screen is installed setuid-
       root, then the administrator should compile screen with an
       adequate  (not NFS mounted) socket directory. If screen is
       not running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When  screen  is  invoked, it executes initialization com-
       mands  from  the   files   "/usr/local/etc/screenrc"   and
       ".screenrc"  in  the  user's home directory. These are the
       "programmer's defaults" that can be overridden in the fol-
       lowing  ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches
       for the environment variable $SYSSCREENRC  (this  override
       feature  may  be  disabled at compile-time). The user spe-
       cific  screenrc  file  is  searched  in  $SCREENRC,   then
       $HOME/.screenrc.   The command line option -c takes prece-
       dence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands in these files are  used  to  set  options,  bind
       functions  to  keys, and to automatically establish one or
       more windows at the  beginning  of  your  screen  session.
       Commands  are  listed one per line, with empty lines being
       ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by  tabs  or
       spaces,  and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.
       A `#' turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in
       quotes.    Unintelligible   lines  are  warned  about  and
       ignored.  Commands may contain references  to  environment
       variables.  The  syntax  is  the  shell-like  "$VAR  "  or
       "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with  pre-
       vious  screen versions, as now the '$'-character has to be
       protected with '\' if no variable  substitution  shall  be
       performed.  A  string  in  single-quotes is also protected
       from variable substitution.

       Two configuration files are shipped as examples with  your
       screen distribution: "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc".
       They contain a number of useful examples for various  com-

       Customization  can  also  be  done 'on-line'. To enter the
       command mode type `C-a :'.  Note  that  commands  starting
       with "def" change default values, while others change cur-
       rent settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this  screen  session.  User-
       names  can be one user or a comma separated list of users.
       This command enables to attach to the screen  session  and
       performs  the  equivalent of `aclchg usernames +rwx "#?"'.
       executed. To add a user with restricted  access,  use  the
       `aclchg'  command  below.  If an optional second parameter
       is supplied, it should be a crypted password for the named
       user(s).  `Addacl'  is  a synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user
       mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated  list  of  users.
       Permission  bits are represented as `r', `w' and `x'. Pre-
       fixing `+' grants the  permission,  `-'  removes  it.  The
       third  parameter  is  a  comma  separated list of commands
       and/or windows (specified either by number or title).  The
       special  list  `#'  refers to all windows, `?' to all com-
       mands. if usernames consists of a single  `*',  all  known
       users  are  affected.   A command can be executed when the
       user has the `x' bit for it.  The user can type input to a
       window  when  he  has  its  `w'  bit set and no other user
       obtains a writelock for this window.  Other bits are  cur-
       rently  ignored.   To  withdraw the writelock from another
       user in window 2: `aclchg  username  -w+w  2'.   To  allow
       read-only access to the session: `aclchg username -w "#"'.
       As soon as a user's name is known to screen he can  attach
       to  the session and (per default) has full permissions for
       all command and windows. Execution permission for the  acl
       commands,  `at'  and  others should also be removed or the
       user may be able to regain write  permission.   Rights  of
       the  special  username  nobody  cannot be changed (see the
       "su" command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to  `aclchg'.   Multi
       user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove  a  user from screen's access control list. If cur-
       rently attached, all the user's displays are detached from
       the  session.  He  cannot  attach  again.  Multi user mode

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common  access  rights.
       The name of the group is the username of the group leader.
       Each member of the group inherits the permissions that are
       granted  to  the group leader. That means, if a user fails
       an access check, another  check  is  made  for  the  group
       leader.   A  user  is  removed from all groups the special
       value "none" is used for groupname.  If the second parame-
       ter is omitted all groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask   [[users]+bits   |[users]-bits   ....   ]  umask
       [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that
       will  be  created by the caller of the command.  Users may
       be no, one or a comma separated list of  known  usernames.
       If  no  users are specified, a list of all currently known
       users is assumed.  Bits is any combination of access  con-
       trol  bits  allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The
       special username "?" predefines the access  that  not  yet
       known  users will be granted to any window initially.  The
       special username "??" predefines the access that  not  yet
       known  users  are  granted  to any command.  Rights of the
       special username nobody cannot be changed  (see  the  "su"
       command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When  any  activity  occurs in a background window that is
       being monitored, screen displays  a  notification  in  the
       message  line.  The notification message can be re-defined
       by means of the "activity" command.   Each  occurrence  of
       `%'  in message is replaced by the number of the window in
       which activity has occurred, and each occurrence of `~' is
       replaced  by the definition for bell in your termcap (usu-
       ally an audible bell).  The default message is

                   'Activity in window %'

       Note that monitoring is off for all  windows  by  default,
       but  can  be  altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current cursor line is refreshed on
       window change.  This affects all windows and is useful for
       slow terminal lines. The previous setting of  full/partial
       refresh for each window is restored with "allpartial off".
       This is a global flag that immediately takes effect on all
       windows  overriding  the  "partial"  settings. It does not
       change the default redraw behavior of newly  created  win-

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute  a  command  at other displays or windows as if it
       had been entered there.  "At"  changes  the  context  (the
       `current window' or `current display' setting) of the com-
       mand. If the first parameter describes a  non-unique  con-
       text,  the command will be executed multiple times. If the
       first parameter is of the form `identifier*' then  identi-
       fier  is  matched against user names.  The command is exe-
       cuted once for each display of the  selected  user(s).  If
       the  first  parameter is of the form `identifier%' identi-
       fier is matched against displays. Displays are named after
       the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty' may
       be omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has  a  `#'
       or  nothing  appended it is matched against window numbers
       and titles. Omitting an identifier in front  of  the  `#',
       `*'  or  `%'-character selects all users, displays or win-
       dows because a prefix-match is performed. Note that on the
       affected  display(s)  a  short  message will describe what
       happened. Permission is checked for initiator of the  "at"
       command,  not  for  the owners of the affected display(s).
       Note that the '#' character works as a comment  introducer
       when  it is preceded by whitespace. This can be escaped by
       prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the  initiator
       of  the  "at"  command, not for the owners of the affected
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is exe-
       cuted  at  least once per window. Commands that change the
       internal arrangement of  windows  (like  "other")  may  be
       called  again.  In  shared  windows  the  command  will be
       repeated for each attached display. Beware,  when  issuing
       toggle   commands   like  "login"!   Some  commands  (e.g.
       "stuff", "process" or "paste") require that a  display  is
       associated  with  the  target windows.  These commands may
       not work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup,
       which  saves  all  your  running  programs  until they are
       resumed with a screen -r  command.   When  turned  off,  a
       hangup  signal will terminate screen and all the processes
       it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autofixterm on|off

       Sets whether screen will add missing capabilities  to  the
       termcap/info entry. It is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets  whether  a clear screen sequence should nuke all the
       output that has not been written to the terminal. See also

       bell_msg [message]

       When  a  bell  character  is  sent to a background window,
       screen displays a notification in the message  line.   The
       notification  message  can  be re-defined by this command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the  num-
       ber  of the window to which a bell has been sent, and each
       occurrence of `~' is replaced by the definition  for  bell
       in  your  termcap  (usually an audible bell).  The default
       message is

                   'Bell in window %'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command
       to suppress output of a message line (bell_msg "").  With-
       out parameter, the current message is shown.

       bind key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands
       provided  by screen are bound to one or more keys as indi-
       cated in the "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section, e.g. the com-
       mand  to  create  a  new window is bound to "C-c" and "c".
       The "bind" command can be used to redefine the  key  bind-
       ings  and  to  define  new  bindings.  The key argument is
       either a single character, a two-character sequence of the
       form  "^x"  (meaning  "C-x"),  a  backslash followed by an
       octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character),
       or  a  backslash  followed  by a second character, such as
       "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also  be  quoted,  if  you
       like.   If  no  further  argument is given, any previously
       established binding for this key is removed.  The  command
       argument can be any command listed in this section.

       Some examples:

                   bind ' ' windows
                   bind ^k
                   bind k
                   bind K kill
                   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would  bind  the  space key to the command that displays a
       list of windows (so that the command  usually  invoked  by
       "C-a  C-w"  would  also  be available as "C-a space"). The
       next three lines remove the default kill binding from "C-a
       C-k"  and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the kill com-
       mand. Then it binds "C-f" to the command "create a  window
       with  a TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape" to
       the command that creates an non-login window  with  a.k.a.
       "root" in slot #9, with a superuser shell and a scrollback
       buffer of 1000 lines.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This command manages screen's  input  translation  tables.
       Every entry in one of the tables tells screen how to react
       if a certain sequence of characters is encountered.  There
       are  three  tables:  one  that should contain actions pro-
       grammed by the user, one for the default actions used  for
       terminal  emulation  and  one for screen's copy mode to do
       cursor movement. See section  "INPUT  TRANSLATION"  for  a
       list of default key bindings.
       If  the  -d  option is given, bindkey modifies the default
       table, -m changes the copy mode  table  and  with  neither
       option the user table is selected.  The argument string is
       the sequence of characters to which an  action  is  bound.
       This  can  either  be a fixed string or a termcap keyboard
       capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different  string
       if  application  mode  is turned on (e.g the cursor keys).
       Such keys have two entries in the translation  table.  You
       can select the application mode entry by specifying the -a
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character  tim-
       ing.  One cannot turn off the timing if a termcap capabil-
       ity is used.
       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary num-
       ber of args.  If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed
       from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d
       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode
       entries are marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make  "foo"  an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout
       is disabled so that users can type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This key-binding makes "^T" an escape character  for  key-
       bindings. If you did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you
       can enter the word "foo" by typing "^Tfoo". If you want to
       insert a "^T" you have to press the key twice (i.e. escape
       the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an  alternative  screen  escape
       (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this win-
       dow.  For non-Posix  systems  the  time  interval  may  be
       rounded  up  to  full seconds.  Most useful if a character
       device is attached to the window rather than a shell  pro-
       cess  (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum dura-
       tion of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break
       signal  for  terminal  devices. This command should affect
       the current window only.  But it still  behaves  identical
       to  "defbreaktype".  This  will  be changed in the future.
       Calling "breaktype" with no parameter displays  the  break
       method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change  the filename used for reading and writing with the
       paste buffer.  If the optional argument  to  the  "buffer-
       file"    command   is   omitted,   the   default   setting
       ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is  reactivated.   The  following
       example  will  paste  the  system's password file into the
       screen window  (using  the  paste  buffer,  where  a  copy

                   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                   C-a < C-a ]
                   C-a : bufferfile

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1  code processing. "C1 on" tells screen to treat
       the input characters between 128 and 159 as control  func-
       tions.   Such  an  8-bit  code is normally the same as ESC
       followed by the corresponding 7-bit code. The default set-
       ting  is  to  process c1 codes and can be changed with the
       "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable  char-
       acters in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This  command controls the display of the window captions.
       Normally a caption is only used if more than one window is
       shown  on the display (split screen mode). But if the type
       is set to always screen shows a caption even if  only  one
       window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You
       can use all escapes from  the  "STRING  ESCAPES"  chapter.
       Screen uses a default of `%3n %t'.

       You  can  mix both forms by providing a string as an addi-
       tional argument.

       charset set

       Change the current  character  set  slot  designation  and
       charset  mapping.   The  first  four  character of set are
       treated as charset designators while the fifth  and  sixth
       character  must  be  in range '0' to '3' and set the GL/GR
       charset mapping. On every position a '.' may  be  used  to
       indicate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not
       be changed (set is padded to six characters internally  by
       appending  '.'   chars).  New  windows  have  "BBBB02"  as
       default charset, unless a "kanji" command is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change  the  current  directory of screen to the specified
       directory or, if called without an argument, to your  home
       directory  (the  value of the environment variable $HOME).
       All windows that are created by means of the "screen" com-
       mand  from within ".screenrc" or by means of "C-a : screen
       ..." or "C-a c"  use  this  as  their  default  directory.
       Without  a chdir command, this would be the directory from
       which screen was invoked.   Hardcopy  and  log  files  are
       always  written to the window's default directory, not the
       current directory of the process running  in  the  window.
       You  can use this command multiple times in your .screenrc
       to start various windows in different default directories,
       but  the  last chdir value will affect all the windows you
       create interactively.


       Clears the current window  and  saves  its  image  to  the
       scrollback buffer.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows  you to enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for
       on-the-fly modification of key bindings,  specific  window
       creation  and  changing settings. Note that the "set" key-
       word no longer exists! Usually commands affect the current
       window  rather  than  default settings for future windows.
       Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode'  of  screen,
       you  may  regard  "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command


       This command has the same  effect  as  typing  the  screen
       escape  character (^A). It is probably only useful for key
       bindings.  See also "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells screen weather to suppress trailing blank lines
       when scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.
       Note: Only the owner of /dev/console can grab the  console
       output.   This  command  is  only available if the machine
       supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to  copy  text
       from  the  current  window  and its history into the paste
       buffer. In this mode a vi-like  `full  screen  editor'  is
       Movement keys:
         h,  j,  k,  l  move the cursor line by line or column by
         0, ^ and $ move to the leftmost column, to the first  or
           last non-whitespace character on the line.
         H, M and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the
           top, center or bottom line of the window.
         + and - positions one line up and down.
         G moves to the specified absolute line (default: end  of
         | moves to the specified absolute column.
         w, b, e move the cursor word by word.
         C-u  and C-d scroll the display up/down by the specified
           amount of lines while preserving the cursor  position.
           (Default: half screen-full).
         C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.
         g moves to the beginning of the buffer.
         % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.

           Emacs  style  movement  keys  can  be  customized by a
           .screenrc command.  (E.g.  markkeys  "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E")
           There  is  no  simple  method  for  a full emacs-style
           keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

           The copy range is specified by setting two marks.  The
           text between these marks will be highlighted. Press
         space to set the first or second mark respectively.
         Y  and  y  used  to  mark one whole line or to mark from
           start of line.
         W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
           Any of these commands can be prefixed  with  a  repeat
           count number by pressing digits
         0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
           Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15
           into the paste buffer.
         / Vi-like search forward.
         ? Vi-like search backward.
         C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
         C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
           There are however some keys that act differently  than
           in  vi.   Vi  does  not  allow one to yank rectangular
           blocks of text, but screen does. Press
         c or C to set the left or right margin respectively.  If
           no  repeat count is given, both default to the current
           cursor position.
           Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [
           M 20 l SPACE c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

           This moves one to the middle line of the screen, moves
           in 20 columns left, marks the beginning of  the  paste
           buffer,  sets  the  left column, moves 5 columns down,
           sets the right column, and then marks the end  of  the
           paste buffer. Now try:
           "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

           and  notice  the  difference  in  the  amount  of text
         J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes:  lines  sepa-
           rated  by a newline character (012), lines glued seam-
           less, lines separated by a single whitespace and comma
           separated lines. Note that you can prepend the newline
           character with a carriage return character, by issuing
           a "crlf on".
         v  is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it tog-
           gles the left margin between column 9 and 1. Press
         a before the final space key to toggle in  append  mode.
           Thus  the  contents  of  the  paste buffer will not be
           overwritten, but is appended to.
         A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
         > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of  the
           paste buffer to the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-
           exchange per default) once copy-mode is finished.
           This  example  demonstrates  how  to  dump  the  whole
           scrollback buffer to that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".
         C-g gives information about the current line and column.
         x  exchanges the first mark and the current cursor posi-
           tion. You can use this to  adjust  an  already  placed
         @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
         All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects the copying of text regions with the `C-a ['
       command. If it is set to `on', lines will be separated  by
       the   two  character  sequence  `CR'  -  `LF'.   Otherwise
       (default) only `LF' is used.  When no parameter is  given,
       the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen has been com-
       piled with  option  -DDEBUG  debugging  available  and  is
       turned on per default. Note that this command only affects
       debugging output from the main "SCREEN" process correctly.
       Debug  output  from  attacher processes can only be turned
       off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for
       new windows is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as the autonuke command except that the default set-
       ting for new  displays  is  changed.  Initial  setting  is
       `off'.   Note  that  you can use the special `AN' terminal
       capability if you want to have a dependency on the  termi-
       nal type.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one of the available methods of generating a break
       signal for terminal devices.  The  preferred  methods  are
       tcsendbreak  and  TIOCSBRK.  The third, TCSBRK, blocks the
       complete screen session for the duration of the break, but
       it  may  be the only way to generate long breaks.  Tcsend-
       break and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with
       spikes (e.g. 4 per second). This is not only system depen-
       dant, this also  differs  between  serial  board  drivers.
       Calling "defbreaktype" with no parameter displays the cur-
       rent setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the  default  setting
       for  new  windows  is  changed.  Shows  current default if
       called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent  to
       the  "escape"  except that it is useful multiuser sessions
       only. In a multiuser session "escape" changes the  command
       character  of  the calling user, where "defescape" changes
       the default command characters  for  users  that  will  be
       added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as  the flow command except that the default setting
       for new windows is changed.  Initial  setting  is  `auto'.
       Specifying  "defflow  auto  interrupt"  is the same as the
       command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for
       new windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The  hardstatus  line that all new windows will get is set
       to status.  This command is useful to make the  hardstatus
       of  every window display the window number or title or the
       like.  Status may contain the same directives  as  in  the
       window  messages,  but  the  directive escape character is
       '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make  a
       misinterpretation  of  program  generated hardstatus lines
       impossible.  If the parameter status is omitted, the  cur-
       rent  default  string is displayed.  Per default the hard-
       status line of new windows is empty.

       defkanji jis|sjis|euc

       Same as the kanji command except that the default  setting
       for new windows is changed. Initial setting is `off', i.e.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default  setting
       for  new windows is changed. This is initialized with `on'
       as distributed (see

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly  allocated  pseudo-tty  is  set  to
       mode.  Mode is an octal number.  When no "defmode" command
       is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the  default  set-
       ting for new windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default set-
       ting  for  new displays is changed. Initial setting is 256
       bytes.  Note that you can use the  special  'OL'  terminal
       capability  if you want to have a dependency on the termi-
       nal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command  except  that  the  default
       setting  for  new  windows  is changed. Initial setting is

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the  default  set-
       ting for new windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default set-
       ting for new windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 mil-
       liseconds, meaning `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap command except that the  default  setting
       for  new windows is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and
       can be toggled with the "wrap" command  ("C-a  r")  or  by
       means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default set-
       ting for new windows is changed. Initially writelocks will

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym  to  the zombie command. Both currently change the
       default.  See there.


       Detach the screen session (disconnect it from the terminal
       and  put it into the background).  This returns you to the
       shell where you invoked screen.  A detached screen can  be
       resumed  by  invoking screen with the -r option. (See also
       section "COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS".)


       Shows a tabular listing of all  currently  connected  user
       front-ends  (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser

       digraph [preset]

       This command prompts the user for a digraph sequence.  The
       next two characters typed are looked up in a builtin table
       and the resulting  character  is  inserted  in  the  input
       stream.  For example, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut
       will be inserted. If the first character entered  is  a  0
       (zero),  screen will treat the following characters (up to
       three) as an octal number instead.  The optional  argument
       preset  is  treated  as user input, thus one can create an
       "umlaut" key.  For example the command "bindkey ^K digraph
       '"'"  enables  the  user to generate an a-umlaut by typing
       CTRL-K a.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized
       for  the currently active window to the file ".termcap" in
       the user's "$HOME/.screen" directory (or  wherever  screen
       stores  its sockets. See the "FILES" section below).  This
       termcap entry is identical to the value of the environment
       variable  $TERMCAP  that is set up by screen for each win-
       dow. For terminfo based systems you will  need  to  run  a
       converter  like  captoinfo and then compile the entry with

       echo [-n] message

       The echo command may be used to annoy screen users with  a
       'message  of  the  day'.  Typically  installed in a global
       /local/etc/screenrc.  The option "-n" may be used to  sup-
       press the line feed.  See also "sleep".  Echo is also use-
       ful for online checking of environment variables.

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character  generat-
       ing  a literal command character (by triggering the "meta"
       command) to y (similar to the -e option).   Each  argument
       is  either a single character, a two-character sequence of
       the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash followed by  an
       octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character),
       or a backslash followed by a  second  character,  such  as
       "\^" or "\\".  The default is "^Aa".

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ...]]

       Run  a  unix  subprocess  (specified by an executable path
       newcommand and its optional arguments) in the current win-
       dow.  The  flow  of  data  between  newcommands stdin/std-
       out/stderr, the process originally started in  the  window
       (let  us  call it "application-process") and screen itself
       (window)  is  controlled  by  the  filedescriptor  pattern
       fdpat.   This  pattern  is  basically  a  three  character
       sequence representing stdin, stdout and stderr of  newcom-
       mand.  A  dot  (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.
       An exclamation mark (!) causes the file descriptor  to  be
       connected to the application-process. A colon (:) combines
       both.  User input will go to newcommand unless  newcommand
       receives  the  application-process'  output  (fdpats first
       character is `!' or `:') or a pipe symbol (|) is added (as
       a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments
       of the currently running subprocess in this  window.  Only
       one subprocess a time can be running in each window.
       When  a  subprocess  is  running  the  `kill' command will
       affect it instead of the windows process.
       Refer to the postscript file `doc/' for a  confus-
       ing  illustration  of  all  21 possible combinations. Each
       drawing shows the digits 2,1,0 representing the three file
       descriptors of newcommand. The box marked `W' is the usual
       pty that has the application-process on  its  slave  side.
       The  box  marked  `P'  is  the  secondary pty that now has
       screen at its master side.

       Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat and the  com-
       mand  can be omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting
       only of dots can be omitted. A simple  `|'  is  synonymous
       for  the pattern `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here
       and can always be replaced by `!'.


              exec ... /bin/sh
              exec /bin/sh

       Creates another shell in the same window, while the origi-
       nal  shell is still running. Output of both shells is dis-
       played and user input is sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200
              exec ! stty 19200
              !!stty 19200

       Set the speed of the window's tty. If  your  stty  command
       operates on stdout, then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less

       This  adds a pager to the window output. The special char-
       acter `|' is needed to give  the  user  control  over  the
       pager  although  it  gets its input from the window's pro-
       cess. This works, because less listens on stderr (a behav-
       ior that screen would not expect without the `|') when its
       stdin is not a tty.  Less versions  newer  than  177  fail
       miserably here; good old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends window output to both, the user and the sed command.
       The sed inserts an additional bell character (oct. 007) to
       the  window  output seen by screen.  This will cause "Bell
       in window x" messages, whenever the string "Error" appears
       in the window.


       Change  the window size to the size of the current region.
       This command is needed because screen  doesn't  adapt  the
       window  size automatically if the window is displayed more
       than once.

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets the  flow-control  mode  for  this  window.   Without
       parameters  it  cycles  the  current window's flow-control
       setting from "automatic" to "on" to "off".  See  the  dis-
       cussion  on  "FLOW-CONTROL"  later on in this document for
       full details and note, that this is subject to  change  in
       future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.


       Move the input focus to the next region. This is done in a
       cyclic way so that the top region is  selected  after  the
       bottom one.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn  GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an
       input character with the 8th bit  set,  it  will  use  the
       charset stored in the GR slot and print the character with
       the 8th bit stripped. The default (see  also  "defgr")  is
       not to process GR switching because otherwise the ISO88591
       charset would not work.


       Writes out the currently displayed image to a  file  hard-
       copy.n  in  the window's default directory, where n is the
       number of the current  window.   This  either  appends  or
       overwrites the file if it exists. See below.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If  set  to  "on",  screen will append to the "hardcopy.n"
       files created by the  command  "C-a  h",  otherwise  these
       files are overwritten each time.  Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines  a  directory where hardcopy files will be placed.
       If unset, hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This  command configures the use and emulation of the ter-
       minal's hardstatus line. The first  form  toggles  whether
       screen  will  use the hardware status line to display mes-
       sages. If the flag is set to  `off',  these  messages  are
       overlaid  in  reverse  video mode at the display line. The
       default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do  if  the  terminal
       doesn't  have a hardstatus line (i.e. the termcap/terminfo
       capabilities "hs", "ts", "fs" and "ds" are  not  set).  If
       the  type "lastline" is used, screen will reserve the last
       line of the display for  the  hardstatus.  "message"  uses
       screen's message mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never
       to display  the  hardstatus.   If  you  prepend  the  word
       "always" to the type, screen will use the type even if the
       terminal supports a hardstatus.

       The third form specifies the contents  of  the  hardstatus
       line.   current  window (settable via \E]0;^G or \E_\\) is
       displayed.  You can customize this to any string you  like
       including  the  escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter.
       If you leave out the argument string, the  current  string
       is displayed.

       You  can  mix  the  second and third form by providing the
       string as additional argument.

       height [lines]

       Set the display height to a  specified  number  of  lines.
       When  no  argument  is  given it toggles between 24 and 42
       lines display.


       Not really a online help, but displays a help screen show-
       ing  you  all  the key bindings.  The first pages list all
       the internal commands followed by their current  bindings.
       Subsequent  pages  will  display  the custom commands, one
       command per key.  Press space  when  you're  done  reading
       each  page, or return to exit early.  All other characters
       are ignored.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually users work with a shell that allows easy access to
       previous  commands.   For example csh has the command "!!"
       to repeat the last command executed.  Screen allows you to
       have  a  primitive  way  of  re-calling  "the command that
       started ...": You just type the first letter of that  com-
       mand, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous
       line that matches with the `prompt character' to the  left
       of  the  cursor.  This  line  is pasted into this window's
       input queue.  Thus you have a crude command history  (made
       up by the visible window and its scrollback buffer).

       hstatus status

       Change  the window's hardstatus line to the string status.


       Uses the message line to display  some  information  about
       the current window: the cursor position in the form "(col-
       umn,row)" starting with "(1,1)", the  terminal  width  and
       height  plus  the  size of the scrollback buffer in lines,
       like in "(80,24)+50", the current state of window XON/XOFF
       flow  control  is  shown  like this (See also section FLOW

         +flow     automatic flow control, currently on.
         -flow     automatic flow control, currently off.
         +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
         -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates  enabled,
       `-wrap' not) is also shown. The flags `ins', `org', `app',
       `log', `mon' or `nored' are displayed when the  window  is
       in  insert mode, origin mode, application-keypad mode, has
       output logging, insert mode, origin mode, application-key-
       pad  mode,  output logging, activity monitoring or partial
       redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and
       in  square  brackets  the terminal character sets that are
       currently designated as G0 through G3 is shown.

       Additional modes depending on the type of the  window  are
       displayed  at the end of the status line (See also chapter
       "WINDOW TYPES").
       If the state machine of the terminal emulator is in a non-
       default  state,  the  info  line  is started with a string
       identifying the current state.
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.

       kanji jis|euc|sjis [jis|euc|sjis]

       Tell screen how to process kanji input/output.  The  first
       argument  sets  the kanji type of the current window. Each
       window can emulate a different type. The  optional  second
       parameter tells screen how to write the kanji codes to the
       connected terminal. The preferred method  of  setting  the
       display  type  is to use the "KJ" termcap entry.  See also
       "defkanji", which changes the default  setting  of  a  new


       Kill current window.
       If  there  is an `exec' command running then it is killed.
       Otherwise  the  process  (shell)  running  in  the  window
       receives  a  HANGUP  condition,  the  window  structure is
       removed and screen (your display) switches to another win-
       dow.   When  the  last  window is destroyed, screen exits.
       After a kill screen switches to the  previously  displayed
       Note:  Emacs  users should keep this command in mind, when
       killing a line.  It is recommended not to use "C-a" as the
       screen escape key or to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay  the  last  contents of the message/status line.
       Useful if you're typing when a  message  appears,  because
       the  message  goes  away when you press a key (unless your
       terminal has a hardware status line).  Refer to  the  com-
       mands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine tuning.


       Display  the disclaimer page. This is done whenever screen
       is started without options, which should be often  enough.
       See also the "startup_message" command.


       Lock    this   display.    Call   a   screenlock   program
       (/local/bin/lck or /usr/bin/lock or a builtin if no  other
       is  available).  Screen  does  not accept any command keys
       until this program terminates. Meanwhile processes in  the
       windows may continue, as the windows are in the `detached'
       state. The screenlock program may be changed  through  the
       environment  variable  $LOCKPRG  (which must be set in the
       shell from which screen is started) and is  executed  with
       the user's uid and gid.
       Warning: When you leave other shells unlocked and you have
       no password set on screen, the lock  is  void:  One  could
       easily  re-attach  from  an  unlocked  shell. This feature
       should rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a  file
       "screenlog.n"  in  the window's default directory, where n
       is the number of the current window. This filename can  be
       changed  with  the  `logfile'  command. If no parameter is
       given, the state of logging is toggled. The session log is
       appended  to  the  previous  contents  of  the  file if it
       already exists. The current contents and the  contents  of
       the  scrollback  history  are  not included in the session
       log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the logfiles will  get.  The  default  is
       "screenlog.%n". The second form changes the number of sec-
       onds screen will wait before flushing the  logfile  buffer
       to the file-system. The default value is 10 seconds.

       login [on|off]

       Adds  or  removes  the entry in the utmp database file for
       the current  window.   This  controls  if  the  window  is
       `logged  in'.  When no parameter is given, the login state
       of the window is toggled.  Additionally to that toggle, it
       is  convenient having a `log in' and a `log out' key. E.g.
       `bind I login on' and `bind O login off'  will  map  these
       keys  to be C-a I and C-a O.  The default setting (in con- should be "on" for  a  screen  that  runs  under
       suid-root.   Use  the  "deflogin"  command  to  change the
       default login state for new  windows.  Both  commands  are
       only  present when screen has been compiled with utmp sup-

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string [string]

       This command  controls  logfile  time-stamp  mechanism  of
       screen.   If  time-stamps  are  turned "on", screen adds a
       string containing the current time to  the  logfile  after
       two minutes of inactivity.  When output continues and more
       than another two minutes have passed, a second  time-stamp
       is  added  to  document the restart of the output. You can
       change this timeout with the second form of  the  command.
       The  third  form  is  used  for customizing the time-stamp
       string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by


       Tell  screen  that the next input character should only be
       looked up in the default bindkey table.  See  also  "bind-


       Like  mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bind-
       key table.

       maptimeout [timo]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection
       to  a  timeout  of  timo ms. The default timeout is 300ms.
       Maptimeout with no arguments shows  the  current  setting.
       See also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap used for copy/his-
       tory mode.  The string is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs
       which   are   separated   by   `:'.  Example:  The  string
       "B=^B:F=^F" will change the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi
       style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to
       be the default binding  for  `B'  and  `F'.   The  command
       "markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-
       style binding.  If your terminal  sends  characters,  that
       cause  you  to abort copy mode, then this command may help
       by binding these characters  to  do  nothing.   The  no-op
       character  is  `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H"
       if you do not want to use the  `H'  or  `L'  commands  any
       longer.   As  shown  in this example, multiple keys can be
       assigned to one function in a single statement.


       Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's
       input stream.

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles  activity  monitoring of windows.  When monitoring
       is turned on and an affected window is switched  into  the
       background,  you  will  receive  the activity notification
       message in the status line at the first sign of output and
       the  window will also be marked with an `@' in the window-
       status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all  win-

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one mes-
       sage is currently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines the time a message is displayed if screen  is  not
       disturbed by other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch  between  singleuser  and  multiuser mode. Standard
       screen operation is singleuser. In multiuser mode the com-
       mands  `acladd',  `aclchg',  `aclgrp'  and `acldel' can be
       used to enable (and disable) other  users  accessing  this
       screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes  the  kind of error messages used by screen.  When
       you are familiar with the game "nethack",  you  may  enjoy
       the nethack-style messages which will often blur the facts
       a little, but are much funnier to read.  Anyway,  standard
       messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This  option is only available if screen was compiled with
       the NETHACK flag defined.  The  default  setting  is  then
       determined  by  the  presence  of the environment variable


       Switch to the next  window.   This  command  can  be  used
       repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

       nonblock [on|off]

       Enable or disable flow control for the current user inter-
       face (display).  It is used to prevent a slow display from
       slowing  down  the  processing of data output by a window.
       This command may be helpful when  multiple  displays  show
       the  same  window.  Nonblock is initially off for all dis-

       number [n]

       Change the current windows number. If the given  number  n
       is  already  used by another window, both windows exchange
       their numbers. If no argument is  specified,  the  current
       window number (and title) is shown.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If  the  output buffer contains more bytes than the speci-
       fied limit, no more data will be read  from  the  windows.
       The default value is 256. If you have a fast display (like
       xterm), you can set it to some higher value. If  no  argu-
       ment is specified, the current setting is displayed.


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch  to the window displayed previously. If this window
       does no longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed  (as  with
       redisplay)  after  switching  to  the current window. This
       command only affects the current window.   To  immediately
       affect all windows use the allpartial command.  Default is
       `off', of course.  This default is fixed, as there is cur-
       rently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present  a  crypted  password in your ".screenrc" file and
       screen will ask  for  it,  whenever  someone  attempts  to
       resume  a  detached. This is useful if you have privileged
       programs running under screen and you want to protect your
       session  from reattach attempts by another user masquerad-
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted pass-
       word is specified, screen prompts twice for typing a pass-
       word and  places  its  encryption  in  the  paste  buffer.
       Default is `none', this disables password checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write  the (concatenated) contents of the specified regis-
       ters to the stdin queue of the current window. The  regis-
       ter '.' is treated as the paste buffer. If no parameter is
       given the user is prompted for a single register to paste.
       The  paste buffer can be filled with the copy, history and
       readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled with  the
       register,  readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called
       with a second argument, the contents of the specified reg-
       isters  is  pasted  into  the  named  destination register
       rather than the window. If '.' is used as the second argu-
       ment, the displays paste buffer is the destination.  Note,
       that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever  a
       second  argument is specified no current window is needed.
       When the source specification only contains registers (not
       the paste buffer) then there need not be a current display
       (terminal  attached),  as  the  registers  are  a   global
       resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell  screen  to  include  font  information  in the paste
       buffer. The default is not to do so. This command is espe-
       cially useful for multi character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen  the window's terminal line and send a break condi-
       tion. See `break'.


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a
       HANGUP  signal  to the parent process of screen.  CAUTION:
       This will result in a logout, when screen was started from
       your login shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The  message  specified  here  is output whenever a `Power
       detach' was performed. It may be used as a replacement for
       a  logout  message  or  to  reset baud rate, etc.  Without
       parameter, the current message is shown.


       Switch to the window with the  next  lower  number.   This
       command  can  be used repeatedly to cycle through the list
       of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If cmd is not an empty string, screen  will  not  use  the
       terminal  capabilities "po/pf" if it detects an ansi print
       sequence ESC [ 5 i, but pipe the output  into  cmd.   This
       should  normally  be  a  command  like  "lpr"  or  "'cat >
       /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a command displays  the
       current  setting.   The  ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing
       and closes the pipe.
       Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user  have
       write  access  to your terminal, they will be able to fire
       off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's
       input  queue. If no argument is given you are prompted for
       a register name. The text is parsed  as  if  it  had  been
       typed  in  from  the  user's keyboard. This command can be
       used to bind multiple actions to a single key.


       Kill all windows  and  terminate  screen.   Note  that  on
       VT100-style  terminals the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.
       This makes the default bindings dangerous: Be careful  not
       to  type  C-a  C-4  when  selecting window no. 4.  Use the
       empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'")  to  remove  a  key


       Reads  the  contents  of  the current screen-exchange file
       into the paste buffer.  See also "bufferfile" command.

       readreg [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of  arguments:
       with  zero  or  one  arguments  it it duplicates the paste
       buffer contents into the register specified or entered  at
       the  prompt.  With  two arguments it reads the contents of
       the named file into the register, just  as  readbuf  reads
       the  screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  The fol-
       lowing example will paste the system's password file  into
       the   screen  window  (using  register  p,  where  a  copy

                   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full  redis-
       play when in partial redraw mode.

       register key string

       Save  the  specified  string to the register key. See also
       the "paste" command.


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is  only
       one region.


       Unlinks  the  screen-exchange  file  used  by the commands
       "writebuf" and "readbuf".


       Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values.  Use-
       ful when strange settings (like scroll regions or graphics
       character set) are left over from an application.

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn
       and  -fa),  title  (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l
       and -ln) , terminal type option (-T <term>), the all-capa-
       bility-flag  (-a)  and scrollback option (-h <num>) may be
       specified with each command.  The option (-M) turns  moni-
       toring  on  for this window.  The option (-L) turns output
       logging on for this window.  If an optional  number  n  in
       the  range  0..9 is given, the window number n is assigned
       to the newly created window (or, if this number is already
       in-use, the next available number).  If a command is spec-
       ified after "screen", this command (with the  given  argu-
       ments)  is  started  in  the window; otherwise, a shell is
       created.  Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                   # example for .screenrc:
                   screen 1
                   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a  window
       with  a  TELNET  connection to the machine foobar (with no
       flow-control using the title "foobar" in  window  #2)  and
       will  write  a  logfile ("screenlog.2") of the telnet ses-
       sion.  Note, that unlike previous versions  of  screen  no
       additional  default  window  is created when "screen" com-
       mands are included in your ".screenrc" file. When the ini-
       tialization is completed, screen switches to the last win-
       dow specified in your .screenrc file or, if none, opens  a
       default window #0.
       Screen  has  built in some functionality of "cu" and "tel-
       net".  See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current win-
       dows  to  num  lines. The default scrollback is 100 lines.
       See also the "defscrollback" command and use  "C-a  i"  to
       view the current setting.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch  to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be
       a prefix of a window title (alphanumeric window name) or a
       window  number.  The parameter is optional and if omitted,
       you get prompted for an identifier.  When a new window  is
       established,  the  first  available  number is assigned to
       this window.  Thus, the first window can be  activated  by
       "select  0"  (there can be no more than 10 windows present
       simultaneously unless screen was compiled  with  a  higher
       MAXWIN setting).

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the current session. Note, that for "screen -list"
       the name shows up with the process-id  prepended.  If  the
       argument  "name"  is  omitted, the name of this session is
       displayed. Caution: The $STY environment  variables  still
       reflects  the old name. This may result in confusion.  The
       default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only
       var  is  specified,  the  user will be prompted to enter a
       value.  If no parameters are specified, the user  will  be
       prompted  for  both variable and value. The environment is
       inherited by all subsequently forked shells.

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a  new  shell.   This
       overrides  the  value  of the environment variable $SHELL.
       This is useful if you'd like to run a  tty-enhancer  which
       is  expecting  to execute the program specified in $SHELL.
       If the command begins with a '-' character, the shell will
       be started as a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set  the title for all shells created during startup or by
       the C-A C-c command.  For details about what a  title  is,
       see the discussion entitled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles  silence  monitoring  of windows.  When silence is
       turned on and an affected  window  is  switched  into  the
       background, you will receive the silence notification mes-
       sage in the status line after a specified period of  inac-
       tivity  (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the `silencewait' command or by  specifying  a  number  of
       seconds  instead  of  `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially
       off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all  windows  monitored  for  silence
       should  wait  before displaying a message. Default 30 sec-

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of a .screenrc  file
       for  num  seconds.   Keyboard activity will end the sleep.
       It may be used to give users a chance to read the messages
       output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define  the  speed at which text is inserted into the cur-
       rent window by the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the  slow-
       paste  value is nonzero text is written character by char-
       acter.  screen will make  a  pause  of  msec  milliseconds
       after each single character write to allow the application
       to process its input. Only use slowpaste if your  underly-
       ing  system  exposes  flow  control problems while pasting
       large amounts of text.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       Change the way screen does highlighting for  text  marking
       and  printing  messages.  Attr is a hexadecimal number and
       describes the attributes  (inverse,  underline,  ...)  the
       text  will get.  Color is a 2 digit number and changes the
       foreground/background  of  the  highlighted  text.    Some
       knowledge of screen's internal character representation is
       needed to make the characters appear in the  desired  way.
       The default is currently 10 99 (standout, default colors).


       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on
       the  display  are resized to make room for the new region.
       The blank window is displayed on the new region.

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the copyright notice during
       startup.  Default is `on', as you probably noticed.

       stuff string

       Stuff the string string in the input buffer of the current
       window.  This is like the "paste" command  but  with  much
       less  overhead.   You  cannot paste large buffers with the
       "stuff" command. It is most useful for key  bindings.  See
       also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]

       Substitute  the user of a display. The command prompts for
       all parameters that are omitted. If passwords  are  speci-
       fied  as parameters, they have to be specified un-crypted.
       The first password is matched against the  systems  passwd
       database,  the  second  password  is  matched  against the
       screen password as  set  with  the  commands  "acladd"  or
       "password".  "Su" may be useful for the screen administra-
       tor to test multiuser  setups.   When  the  identification
       fails,  the  user has access to the commands available for
       user nobody.  These are  "detach",  "license",  "version",
       "help" and "displays".


       Suspend  screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state,
       while screen is suspended.  This  feature  relies  on  the
       shell being able to do job control.

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM vari-
       able is set to "screen" by default.  But when no  descrip-
       tion  for  "screen"  is  installed in the local termcap or
       terminfo data base, you set $TERM to - say - "vt100". This
       won't  do  much  harm, as screen is VT100/ANSI compatible.
       The use of the "term"  command  is  discouraged  for  non-
       default purpose.  That is, one may want to specify special
       $TERM settings (e.g. vt100) for the  next  "screen  rlogin
       othermachine"  command.  Use  the command "screen -T vt100
       rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting the

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use  this  command to modify your terminal's termcap entry
       without going through all the hassles involved in creating
       a  custom  termcap  entry.   Plus, you can optionally cus-
       tomize the termcap generated for the windows.  You have to
       place these commands in one of the screenrc startup files,
       as they are meaningless  once  the  terminal  emulator  is
       If  your  system  works  uses the terminfo database rather
       than termcap, screen will understand the  `terminfo'  com-
       mand, which has the same effects as the `termcap' command.
       Two separate commands are provided, as  there  are  subtle
       syntactic  differences,  e.g. when parameter interpolation
       (using `%') is required. Note that termcap  names  of  the
       capabilities  have to be used with the `terminfo' command.
       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both  ter-
       minfo  and  termcap syntax, you can use the command `term-
       capinfo', which is just a shorthand for a pair  of  `term-
       cap' and `terminfo' commands with identical arguments.

       The  first  argument specifies which terminal(s) should be
       affected by this definition.   You  can  specify  multiple
       terminal  names  by separating them with `|'s.  Use `*' to
       match all terminals and `vt*' to match all terminals  that
       begin with "vt".

       Each  tweak  argument contains one or more termcap defines
       (separated by `:'s) to be inserted at  the  start  of  the
       appropriate  termcap  entry,  enhancing  it  or overriding
       existing values.  The first tweak modifies your terminal's
       termcap,  and contains definitions that your terminal uses
       to perform certain functions.  Specify a  null  string  to
       leave  this  unchanged  (e.g.  '').  The second (optional)
       tweak modifies all the window termcaps, and should contain
       definitions that screen understands (see the "VIRTUAL TER-
       MINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin with  `xterm'
       have firm auto-margins that allow the last position on the
       screen to be updated (LP), but they don't  really  have  a
       status  line  (no  'hs' - append `@' to turn entries off).
       Note that we assume `LP' for all terminal names that start
       with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap command
       for that terminal.

              termcap vt*  LP
              termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP' capability for all termi-
       nals  that  begin with `vt', and the second line will also
       add the escape-sequences to switch into (Z0) and back  out
       of  (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if this is a VT102 or
       VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your termcap to use
       the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function
       key labels to each window's termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19  termcap  and  turns  off  auto-margins
       (am@) and enables the insert mode (im) and end-insert (ei)
       capabilities (the `@' in the `im' string is after the `=',
       so  it  is  part of the string).  Having the `im' and `ei'
       definitions put into your terminal's  termcap  will  cause
       screen  to  automatically  advertise  the character-insert
       capability in each window's  termcap.   Each  window  will
       also get the delete-character capability (dc) added to its
       termcap, which screen will translate  into  a  line-update
       for  the  terminal  (we're  pretending  it doesn't support
       character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each  window's  termcap
       entry,  you  should  instead  set  the $SCREENCAP variable
       prior to running screen.  See the discussion on the  "VIR-
       TUAL TERMINAL" in this manual, and the termcap(5) man page
       for more information on termcap definitions.


       Uses the message line to display the time of day, the host
       name,  and the load averages over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if
       this is available on your system).   For  window  specific
       information use "info".

       title [windowalias]

       Set  the  name of the current window to windowalias. If no
       name is specified, screen prompts for  one.  This  command
       was known as `aka' in previous releases.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets the visual bell setting for this window. Omitting the
       parameter toggles the setting. If vbell  is  switched  on,
       but  your  terminal  does  not  support  a  visual bell, a
       `vbell-message' is displayed in the status line  when  the
       bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support of a
       terminal is defined by the  termcap  variable  `vb'  (ter-
       minfo: 'flash').
       Per  default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell is used.
       See also `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is  printed  to  the
       status  line if the window receives a bell character (^G),
       vbell is set to "on", but the terminal does not support  a
       visual  bell.   The  default  message  is  "Wuff, Wuff!!".
       Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define a delay in seconds after each display  of  screen's
       visual bell message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If  verbose  is  switched  on, the command name is echoed,
       whenever a window is created (or resurrected  from  zombie
       state).  Default  is  off.  Without parameter, the current
       setting is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the sta-
       tus line.

       wall message

       Write  a  message to all displays. The message will appear
       in the terminal's status line.

       width [num]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or  set
       it  to  num  columns  if  an  argument is specified.  This
       requires a capable terminal and the termcap  entries  "Z0"
       and "Z1".  See the "termcap" command for more information.


       Uses the message line to display a list of  all  the  win-
       dows.   Each  window  is listed by number with the name of
       process that has  been  started  in  the  window  (or  its
       title);  the current window is marked with a `*'; the pre-
       vious window is marked with a `-'; all  the  windows  that
       are "logged in" are marked with a `$'; a background window
       that has received a bell is marked with  a  `!';  a  back-
       ground window that is being monitored and has had activity
       occur is marked with an `@'; a  window  which  has  output
       logging  turned  on is marked with `(L)'; windows occupied
       by other users are marked with `&'; windows in the  zombie
       state  are  marked  with `Z'.  If this list is too long to
       fit on the terminal's status line only the portion  around
       the current window is displayed.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets  the  line-wrap setting for the current window.  When
       line-wrap is on, the second consecutive printable  charac-
       ter  output  at the last column of a line will wrap to the
       start  of  the  following  line.   As  an  added  feature,
       backspace  (^H)  will also wrap through the left margin to
       the previous line.  Default is `on'.


       Writes the contents of the paste buffer to a public acces-
       sible screen-exchange file. This is thought of as a primi-
       tive means of communication between screen  users  on  the
       same  host.  The  filename  can be set with the bufferfile
       command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may  be
       able  to  write  to  the same window at once. Per default,
       writelock is in `auto' mode  and  grants  exclusive  input
       permission  to  the user who is the first to switch to the
       particular window. When he leaves the window, other  users
       may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of
       the current window is disabled by the  command  "writelock
       off".  If  the  user  issues the command "writelock on" he
       keeps the exclusive write permission  while  switching  to
       other windows.


       Insert  a  CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of
       the current window.

       zombie [keys]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per default screen windows are  removed  from  the  window
       list  as  soon  as the windows process (e.g. shell) exits.
       When a string of two keys is specified to the zombie  com-
       mand,  `dead'  windows  will remain in the list.  The kill
       command may be used to remove such a window. Pressing  the
       first  key  in  the  dead window has the same effect. When
       pressing the second key, screen will attempt to  resurrect
       the  window. The process that was initially running in the
       window will be  launched  again.  Calling  zombie  without
       parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus making win-
       dows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally for all win-
       dows,  this command should only be called defzombie. Until
       we need this as a per window setting, the commands  zombie
       and defzombie are synonymous.

       Screen  displays informational messages and other diagnos-
       tics in a message line.  While this line is distributed to
       appear  at  the bottom of the screen, it can be defined to
       appear at the top of the screen  during  compilation.   If
       your  terminal  has  a status line defined in its termcap,
       screen will use this for displaying its  messages,  other-
       wise  a  line  of  the  current screen will be temporarily
       overwritten and output will  be  momentarily  interrupted.
       The message line is automatically removed after a few sec-
       onds delay, but it can also be removed early (on terminals
       without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The  message  line  facility can be used by an application
       running in the current window by means of the ANSI Privacy
       message  control  sequence.  For instance, from within the
       shell, try something like:

              echo  '<esc>^Hello   world   from   window   '$WIN-

       where '<esc>' is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and
       '\\' turns into a single backslash.

       Screen provides three different window types. New  windows
       are  created  with  screen's  screen command (see also the
       entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZATION"). The first parameter  to
       the  screen  command  defines which type of window is cre-
       ated. The different window types are all special cases  of
       the  normal  type.  They have been added in order to allow
       screen to be used efficiently  as  a  console  multiplexer
       with 100 or more windows.

       o  The  normal  window  contains  a  shell (default, if no
          parameter is given) or any other  system  command  that
          could be executed from a shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       o  If   a   tty  (character  special  device)  name  (e.g.
          "/dev/ttya") is specified as the first parameter,  then
          the  window is directly connected to this device.  This
          window type is similar to  "screen  cu  -l  /dev/ttya".
          Read  and  write access is required on the device node,
          an exclusive open is attempted on the node to mark  the
          connection  line  as  busy.   An  optional parameter is
          allowed consisting of a comma separated list  of  flags
          in the notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually  300,  1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects
                 transmission as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission  of  eight  (or  seven)
                 bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables   (or  disables)  software  flow-control
                 (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q) for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control  for
                 receiving data.

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear  (or  keep) the eight bit in each received

          You may want to specify as many  of  these  options  as
          applicable.  Unspecified  options  cause  the  terminal
          driver to make up the parameter values of  the  connec-
          tion.   These values are system dependant and may be in
          defaults or values saved from a previous connection.

          For tty windows, the info command  shows  some  of  the
          modem  control  lines  in  the  status  line. These may
          include `RTS', `CTS',  'DTR',  `DSR',  `CD'  and  more.
          This  depends  on  the  available  ioctl()'s and system
          header files as well as the on the  physical  capabili-
          ties of the serial board.  Signals that are logical low
          (inactive) have their name preceded by  an  exclamation
          mark   (!),   otherwise  the  signal  is  logical  high
          (active).  Signals not supported by  the  hardware  but
          available  to  the  ioctl() interface are usually shown
          When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the  whole  set  of
          modem  signals is placed inside curly braces ({ and }).
          When the CRTSCTS or TIOCSOFTCAR bit is set, the signals
          `CTS' or `CD' are shown in parenthesis, respectively.

          For  tty  windows,  the  command  break causes the Data
          transmission line (TxD)  to  go  low  for  a  specified
          period  of  time. This is expected to be interpreted as
          break signal on the other side.  No data is sent and no
          modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       o  If the first parameter is "//telnet", the second param-
          eter is expected to be a host  name,  and  an  optional
          third  parameter may specify a TCP port number (default
          decimal 23).  Screen will connect to a server listening
          on  the remote host and use the telnet protocol to com-
          municate with that server.
          For telnet windows,  the  command  info  shows  details
          about  the  connection  in square brackets ([ and ]) at
          the end of the status line.

          b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

          e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

          c      SGA.  The  connection  is  in  `character  mode'
                 (default: `line mode').

          t      TTYPE.  The  terminal type has been requested by
                 the remote host.  Screen sends the name "screen"
                 unless  instructed  otherwise (see also the com-
                 mand `term').

          w      NAWS. The remote site is notified  about  window
                 size changes.

          f      LFLOW.  The  remote  host will send flow control
                 information.  (Ignored at the moment.)

          Additional flags for debugging are x, t  and  n  (XDIS-
          PLOC, TSPEED and NEWENV).

          For  telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet
          code IAC BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.

          This window type is only available if screen  was  com-
          piled with the BUILTIN_TELNET option defined.

       Screen  provides an escape mechanism to insert information
       like the current time into messages  or  file  names.  The
       escape  character  is  '%' with one exception: inside of a
       window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       h      hardstatus of the window

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the  part  to the next '%?' is displayed only if an
              escape expands to an nonempty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       The 'c' and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make
       screen  use  zero  instead of space as fill character. The
       'n' escape understands a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n').

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how
       screen deals with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps
       the interrupt character).   When  flow-control  is  turned
       off,  screen  ignores  the  XON and XOFF characters, which
       allows the user to send them to  the  current  program  by
       simply  typing  them  (useful  for  the  emacs editor, for
       instance).  The trade-off is that it will take longer  for
       output  from a "normal" program to pause in response to an
       XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON and  XOFF  charac-
       ters  are used to immediately pause the output of the cur-
       rent window.  You can still send these characters  to  the
       current  program,  but  you  must use the appropriate two-
       character screen commands (typically "C-a q" (xon) and "C-
       a  s"  (xoff)).  The xon/xoff commands are also useful for
       typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that  intercepts  these

       Each  window  has  an  initial flow-control value set with
       either the -f option or the "defflow"  .screenrc  command.
       Per  default the windows are set to automatic flow-switch-
       ing.  It can then be  toggled  between  the  three  states
       'fixed on', 'fixed off' and

       The  automatic flow-switching mode deals with flow control
       using the TIOCPKT mode (like "rlogin" does).  If  the  tty
       driver  does not support TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out
       the right mode based on the current setting of the  appli-
       cation keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is turned
       off and visa versa.  Of course, you can  still  manipulate
       flow-control manually when needed.

       If  you're running with flow-control enabled and find that
       pressing the interrupt key (usually C-c) does  not  inter-
       rupt the display until another 6-8 lines have scrolled by,
       try running screen with the "interrupt"  option  (add  the
       "interrupt"  flag to the "flow" command in your .screenrc,
       or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the  out-
       put  that screen has accumulated from the interrupted pro-
       gram to be flushed.  One disadvantage is that the  virtual
       terminal's  memory contains the non-flushed version of the
       output, which in rare cases can cause  minor  inaccuracies
       in  the  output.   For  example, if you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with "C-a l"  you  would  see
       the  version  of  the output you would have gotten without
       "interrupt" being on.  Also, you might need  to  turn  off
       flow-control  (or  use auto-flow mode to turn it off auto-
       matically) when running a program that expects you to type
       the  interrupt  character  as  input, as it is possible to
       interrupt the output of the virtual terminal to your phys-
       ical  terminal when flow-control is enabled.  If this hap-
       pens, a simple refresh of the screen  with  "C-a  l"  will
       restore  it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever mode
       you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display
       (viewed  with the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it
       with one of the title commands.  Normally  the  name  dis-
       played  is  the actual command name of the program created
       in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to distin-
       guish  various  programs of the same name or to change the
       name on-the-fly to reflect the current state of  the  win-

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the
       "shelltitle" command in  the  .screenrc  file,  while  all
       other windows are created with a "screen" command and thus
       can have their name set  with  the  -t  option.   Interac-
       tively,   there   is   the   title-string  escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\) and the "title" command (C-a  A).   The
       former  can  be  output from an application to control the
       window's name under software control, and the latter  will
       prompt  for  a  name  when  typed.  You can also bind pre-
       defined names to keys with  the  "title"  command  to  set
       things quickly without prompting.

       Finally,  screen  has  a  shell-specific heuristic that is
       enabled by setting the window's name to "search|name"  and
       arranging to have a null title escape-sequence output as a
       part of your prompt.  The search portion specifies an end-
       of-prompt  search string, while the name portion specifies
       the default shell name for the window.  If the  name  ends
       in  a  `:' screen will add what it believes to be the cur-
       rent command running in the window to the end of the  win-
       dow's shell name (e.g. "name:cmd").  Otherwise the current
       command name supersedes the shell name while  it  is  run-

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell prompt to
       output a null title-escape-sequence  (<esc>k<esc>\)  as  a
       part of your prompt.  The last part of your prompt must be
       the same as the string you specified for the  search  por-
       tion  of  the title.  Once this is set up, screen will use
       the title-escape-sequence to clear  the  previous  command
       name  and  get  ready  for the next command.  Then, when a
       newline is received from the shell, a search is  made  for
       the  end  of the prompt.  If found, it will grab the first
       word after the matched string and use it  as  the  command
       name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or
       '^' screen will use the first word on the  following  line
       (if  found)  in  preference  to the just-found name.  This
       helps csh users get better command names  when  using  job
       control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding  this  line  to your .screenrc would start a nice-d
       version of the "top"  command  in  window  2  named  "top"
       rather than "nice".

                   shelltitle '> |csh'
                   screen 1

       These commands would start a shell with the given shellti-
       tle.  The title specified  is  an  auto-title  that  would
       expect  the prompt and the typed command to look something
       like the following:

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the command name).  The  win-
       dow status would show the name "trn" while the command was
       running, and revert to "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind  the  key
       sequence  "C-a R" to the "su" command and give it an auto-
       title name of "root:".  For this auto-title to  work,  the
       screen could look something like this:

                   % !em
                   emacs file.c

       Here  the  user  typed the csh history command "!em" which
       ran the previously entered "emacs"  command.   The  window
       status would show "root:emacs" during the execution of the
       command, and revert to simply "root:" at its completion.

                   bind o title
                   bind E title ""
                   bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it  would
       prompt you for a title. when you type "C-a o".  The second
       binding would clear an auto-title's current  setting  (C-a
       E).   The  third  binding  would  set the current window's
       title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-
       sequence to your prompt is that some shells (like the csh)
       count all  the  non-control  characters  as  part  of  the
       prompt's  length.   If these invisible characters aren't a
       multiple of 8 then backspacing over a tab will  result  in
       an  incorrect  display.   One way to get around this is to
       use a prompt like this:

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not only normalizes  the
       character  attributes,  but all the zeros round the length
       of the invisible characters up  to  8.   Bash  users  will
       probably   want   to  echo  the  escape  sequence  in  the

              PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -n -e "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of  a  bug  in  bash

       Each window in a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal,
       with some extra functions added.  The  VT100  emulator  is
       hard-coded, no other terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually  screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI
       standard as possible. But if your terminal  lacks  certain
       capabilities,  the emulation may not be complete. In these
       cases screen has to tell the applications that some of the
       features are missing. This is no problem on machines using
       termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP  variable  to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But  if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine
       supports only terminfo this method fails. Because of this,
       screen offers a way to deal with these cases.  Here is how
       it works:

       When screen tries  to  figure  out  a  terminal  name  for
       itself, it first looks for an entry named "screen.<term>",
       where <term> is the contents of your $TERM  variable.   If
       no such entry exists, screen tries "screen" (or "screen-w"
       if the terminal is wide (132 cols or more)).  If even this
       entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't sup-
       port an important feature (e.g. delete char  or  clear  to
       EOS) you can build a new termcap/terminfo entry for screen
       (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in which this  capability  has
       been disabled. If this entry is installed on your machines
       you are able to do a rlogin and  still  keep  the  correct
       termcap/terminfo  entry.   The terminal name is put in the
       $TERM variable of all new windows.  Screen also  sets  the
       $TERMCAP  variable reflecting the capabilities of the vir-
       tual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on  machines
       using  the  terminfo database this variable has no effect.
       Furthermore, the variable $WINDOW is  set  to  the  window
       number of each window.

       The  actual  set  of capabilities supported by the virtual
       terminal depends on  the  capabilities  supported  by  the
       physical  terminal.  If, for instance, the physical termi-
       nal does not support underscore mode, screen does not  put
       the  `us' and `ue' capabilities into the window's $TERMCAP
       variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capa-
       bilities  must  be supported by a terminal in order to run
       screen; namely scrolling, clear screen, and direct  cursor
       addressing  (in  addition, screen does not run on hardcopy
       terminals or on terminals that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by  screen
       by  using  the "termcap" .screenrc command, or by defining
       the variable $SCREENCAP prior to  startup.   When  the  is
       latter  defined,  its  value  will be copied verbatim into
       each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can either  be  the
       full terminal definition, or a filename where the terminal
       "screen" (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen honors the "terminfo"  .screenrc  command
       if the system uses the terminfo database rather than term-

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the termcap
       entry  for  the  terminal on which screen has been called,
       the terminal emulation of screen supports multiple charac-
       ter  sets.  This allows an application to make use of, for
       instance, the VT100 graphics  character  set  or  national
       character  sets.  The following control functions from ISO
       2022 are supported: lock shift  G0  (SI),  lock  shift  G1
       (SO),  lock  shift G2, lock shift G3, single shift G2, and
       single shift G3.  When a virtual terminal  is  created  or
       reset, the ASCII character set is designated as G0 through
       G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates
       the  capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is
       the sequence the terminal uses to  enable  and  start  the
       graphics character set rather than SI.  `E0' is the corre-
       sponding replacement for SO. `C0'  gives  a  character  by
       character  translation  string  that  is used during semi-
       graphics mode. This string is built like the  `acsc'  ter-
       minfo capability.

       When  the  `po'  and  `pf' capabilities are present in the
       terminal's termcap entry, applications running in a screen
       window  can  send output to the printer port of the termi-
       nal.  This allows a user to have  an  application  in  one
       window sending output to a printer connected to the termi-
       nal, while all other windows are still active (the printer
       port  is enabled and disabled again for each chunk of out-
       put).  As a side-effect,  programs  running  in  different
       windows  can  send  output  to the printer simultaneously.
       Data sent to the printer is not displayed in  the  window.
       The info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every window. If  a
       window  gets  selected,  the  display's hardstatus will be
       updated to match the window's hardstatus line. If the dis-
       play  has  no  hardstatus  the line will be displayed as a
       standard screen  message.   The  hardstatus  line  can  be
       changed  with  the ANSI Application Program Command (APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\". As a convenience for xterm  users  the
       sequence "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some  capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable
       of the virtual terminal if they can be efficiently  imple-
       mented  by  the  physical  terminal.   For  instance, `dl'
       (delete line) is only put into the  $TERMCAP  variable  if
       the   terminal  supports  either  delete  line  itself  or
       scrolling regions. Note that this may  provoke  confusion,
       when the session is reattached on a different terminal, as
       the value of $TERMCAP cannot be modified  by  parent  pro-

       The following is a list of control sequences recognized by
       screen.  "(V)" and "(A)" indicate VT100-specific and ANSI-
       or ISO-specific functions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send    VT100    Identification

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

           Pn = 6                 Invisible

                7                 Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message

       ESC !                      Global  Message String (Message

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device Control String.  Outputs
                                  a  string  directly to the host
                                  terminal  without   interpreta-

       ESC _                 (A)  Application   Program   Command

       ESC ]                 (A)  Operating System Command (Hard-
                                  status, xterm title hack)

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Screen

                  1               From  Beginning  of  Screen  to

                  2               Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Line

                  1               From Beginning of Line to  Cur-

                  2               Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m        Select Graphic Rendition

             Ps = None or 0       Default Rendition

                  1               Bold

                  2          (A)  Faint

                  3          (A)  Standout   Mode  (ANSI:  Itali-

                  4               Underlined

                  5               Blinking

                  7               Negative Image

                  22         (A)  Normal Intensity

                  23         (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Itali-
                                  cized off)

                  24         (A)  Not Underlined

                  25         (A)  Not Blinking

                  27         (A)  Positive Image

                  30         (A)  Foreground Black

                  31         (A)  Foreground Red

                  32         (A)  Foreground Green

                  33         (A)  Foreground Yellow

                  34         (A)  Foreground Blue

                  35         (A)  Foreground Magenta

                  36         (A)  Foreground Cyan

                  37         (A)  Foreground White

                  39         (A)  Foreground Default

                  40         (A)  Background Black


                  49         (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

             Pn = None or 0       Clear Tab at Current Position

                  3               Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h        Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l        Reset Mode

             Ps = 4          (A)  Insert Mode

                  20         (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

                  34              Normal Cursor Visibility

                  ?1         (V)  Application Cursor Keys

                  ?3         (V)  Change  Terminal  Width  to 132

                  ?5         (V)  Reverse Video

                  ?6         (V)  Origin Mode

                  ?7         (V)  Wrap Mode

                  ?25        (V)  Visible Cursor

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay  to  printer  (ANSI
                                  Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop  relay  to  printer  (ANSI
                                  Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize the window to `Ph' lines
                                  and  `Pw' columns (SunView spe-

       ESC [ c                    Send    VT100    Identification

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send   VT220  Secondary  Device
                                  Attributes String

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report

       In order to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect
       that a sequence of characters in the input stream was gen-
       erated by a keypress on the user's keyboard and insert the
       VT100  style  escape  sequence. Screen has a very flexible
       way of doing this by making it possible to  map  arbitrary
       commands  on  arbitrary sequences of characters. For stan-
       dard VT100 emulation the  command  will  always  insert  a
       string in the input buffer of the window (see also command
       stuff in the command table).  Because the sequences gener-
       ated by a keypress can change after a reattach from a dif-
       ferent terminal type, it is possible to bind  commands  to
       the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the cor-
       rect binding after each reattach. See the bindkey  command
       for further details on the syntax and examples.

       Here  is  the table of the default key bindings. (A) means
       that the command is executed if the keyboard  is  switched
       into application mode.

       Key name          Termcap name    Command
       Cursor up             ku          stuff \033[A
                                         stuff \033OA    (A)
       Cursor down           kd          stuff \033[B
                                         stuff \033OB    (A)
       Cursor right          kr          stuff \033[C
                                         stuff \033OC    (A)
       Cursor left           kl          stuff \033[D
                                         stuff \033OD    (A)
       Function key 0        k0          stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1        k1          stuff \033OP
       Function key 2        k2          stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3        k3          stuff \033OR
       Function key 4        k4          stuff \033OS
       Function key 5        k5          stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6        k6          stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7        k7          stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8        k8          stuff \033[19~
       Function key 9        k9          stuff \033[20~
       Function key 10       k;          stuff \033[21~
       Function key 11       F1          stuff \033[22~
       Function key 12       F2          stuff \033[23~
       Backspace             kb          stuff \010
       Home                  kh          stuff \033[1~
       End                   kH          stuff \033[4~
       Insert                kI          stuff \033[2~
       Delete                kD          stuff \033[3~
       Page up               kP          stuff \033[5~
       Page down             kN          stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0              f0          stuff 0
                                         stuff \033Op    (A)
       Keypad 1              f1          stuff 1
                                         stuff \033Oq    (A)
       Keypad 2              f2          stuff 2
                                         stuff \033Or    (A)
       Keypad 3              f3          stuff 3
                                         stuff \033Os    (A)
       Keypad 4              f4          stuff 4
                                         stuff \033Ot    (A)
       Keypad 5              f5          stuff 5
                                         stuff \033Ou    (A)
       Keypad 6              f6          stuff 6
                                         stuff \033Ov    (A)
       Keypad 7              f7          stuff 7
                                         stuff \033Ow    (A)
       Keypad 8              f8          stuff 8
                                         stuff \033Ox    (A)
       Keypad 9              f9          stuff 9
                                         stuff \033Oy    (A)
       Keypad +              f+          stuff +
                                         stuff \033Ok    (A)
       Keypad -              f-          stuff -
                                         stuff \033Om    (A)
       Keypad *              f*          stuff *
                                         stuff \033Oj    (A)
       Keypad /              f/          stuff /
                                         stuff \033Oo    (A)
       Keypad =              fq          stuff =
                                         stuff \033OX    (A)
       Keypad .              f.          stuff .
                                         stuff \033On    (A)
       Keypad ,              f,          stuff ,
                                         stuff \033Ol    (A)
       Keypad enter          fe          stuff \015
                                         stuff \033OM    (A)

       The  following  table  describes all terminal capabilities
       that are recognized by screen and are  not  in  the  term-
       cap(5)  manual.   You can place these capabilities in your
       termcap entries (in `/etc/termcap') or use them  with  the
       commands  `termcap',  `terminfo' and `termcapinfo' in your
       screenrc files. It is often not possible  to  place  these
       capabilities in the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic mar-
                    gins'). Note that this capability is obsolete
                    because   screen   uses   the  standard  'xn'

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display.  This  capability  has   the
                    desired  width  and height as arguments. Sun-
                    View(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control.  Send  ^S
                    and  ^Q  direct  to  the application. Same as
                    'flow off'. The opposite of  this  capability
                    is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal  can  deal with ISO 2022 font selec-
                    tion sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset.
                    Default is '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset.
                    Default is '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font
                    '0'.   See   the  'ac'  capability  for  more

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See the 'autonuke'  command
                    for more details.

       OL   (num)   Set  the  output  buffer limit. See the 'obu-
                    flimit' command for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set the kanji type  of  the  terminal.  Valid
                    strings are "jis", "euc" and "sjis".

       AF   (str)   Change  character foreground color in an ANSI
                    conform  way.  This  capability  will  almost
                    always  be  set to '\E[3%dm' ('\E[3%p1%dm' on
                    terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default fg/bg  color
                    (\E[39m / \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe   a  translation  of  characters  to
                    strings depending on the current  font.  More
                    details follow in the next section.

       TF   (bool)  Add  missing capabilities to the termcap/info
                    entry. (Set by default).

       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate characters to
       arbitrary strings depending on the current font and termi-
       nal type.  Use this feature if you want  to  work  with  a
       common standard character set (say ISO8851-latin1) even on
       terminals that scatter the more  unusual  characters  over
       several national language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The  things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters  in
       font <designator> ('B': Ascii, 'A': UK, 'K': german, etc.)
       to strings. Every <mapping> describes  to  what  string  a
       single  character will be translated. A template mechanism
       is used, as most of the time the codes have a lot in  com-
       mon  (for  example  strings  to switch to and from another
       charset). Each occurrence of '%' in <template>  gets  sub-
       stituted  with  the <template-arg> specified together with
       the character. If your strings are  not  similar  at  all,
       then  use  '%'  as a template and place the full string in
       <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to  make  it
       possible  to  use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes the
       special characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells .I screen how to translate  ISOlatin1  (charset
       'B') upper case umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that
       has  a  german  charset.   '\304'   gets   translated   to
       '\E(K[\E(B'  and  so  on.  Note that this line gets parsed
       *three* times before the internal lookup table  is  built,
       therefore  a  lot  of quoting is needed to create a single

       Another extension was added to allow more emulation: If  a
       mapping  translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent
       to the terminal whenever screen  switches  to  the  corre-
       sponding  <designator>.  In this special case the template
       is assumed to be  just  '%'  because  the  charset  switch
       sequence  and the character mappings normally haven't much
       in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the german ('K') charset is emulated on an
       xterm.  If screen has to change to the 'K' charset, '\E(B'
       will be sent to the terminal, i.e. the  ASCII  charset  is
       used  instead. The template is just '%', so the mapping is
       straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\' to '\326', and ']'  to

       COLUMNS        Number  of  columns  on the terminal (over-
                      rides termcap entry).
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of lines on the terminal  (overrides
                      termcap entry).
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default shell program for  opening  windows
                      (default "/bin/sh").
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.

       .../screen-3.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples  in  the screen
                                         distribution package for
                                         private  and global ini-
                                         tialization files.
       /usr/local/etc/screenrc           screen    initialization
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read       in      after
       /local/screens/S-<login>          Socket       directories
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate  socket direc-
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap"
                                         output function
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen     `interprocess
                                         communication buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by
                                         the hardcopy function
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output log files created
                                         by the log function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal      capability
       /etc/utmp                         Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program   that  locks  a

       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

       Originally created by Oliver Laumann, this latest  version
       was produced by Wayne Davison, Juergen Weigert and Michael

       Copyright (C) 1999
            Juergen Weigert (
            Michael Schroeder (
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software;  you  can  redistribute  it
       and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
       License as published  by  the  Free  Software  Foundation;
       either version 2, or (at your option) any later version.
       This  program  is  distributed in the hope that it will be
       useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
       PURPOSE.  See the GNU  General  Public  License  for  more
       You  should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
       License along with this program (see the file COPYING); if
       not,  write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Tem-
       ple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA

       Ken Beal (,
       Rudolf Koenig (,
       Toerless Eckert (,
       Wayne Davison (,
       Patrick Wolfe (, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (,
       Nathan Glasser (,
       Larry W. Virden (,
       Howard Chu (,
       Tim MacKenzie (,
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee},
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (,
       Ken Stillson (,
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt (,
       Don Smith (,
       Frank van der Linden (,
       Martin Schweikert (,
       David Vrona (,
       E. Tye McQueen (,
       Matthew Green (,
       Christopher Williams (,
       Matt Mosley (,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU).

       This is version 3.9 Its roots are a merge of a custom ver-
       sion  2.3PR7  by Wayne Davison and several enhancements to
       Oliver Laumann's version 2.0. Note that all versions  num-
       bered 2.x are copyright by Oliver Laumann.

       The latest official release of screen available via anony-
       mous ftp from, or  any  other
       GNU distribution site. The home site of screen is ftp.uni- (, in  the  directory  pub/utili-
       ties/screen.  The subdirectory `private' contains the lat-
       est beta testing release. If you want to help, send a note

       o  `dm'  (delete  mode) and `xs' are not handled correctly
          (they are ignored). `xn' is treated as  a  magic-margin

       o  Screen  has  no  clue  about double-high or double-wide
          characters.  But this is the only area where vttest  is
          allowed to fail.

       o  It  is  not possible to change the environment variable
          $TERMCAP when reattaching under  a  different  terminal

       o  The  support of terminfo based systems is very limited.
          Adding extra capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have  any

       o  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       o  Screen  must be installed as set-uid with owner root on
          most systems in order to be able  to  correctly  change
          the owner of the tty device file for each window.  Spe-
          cial permission may also be required to write the  file

       o  Entries  in  "/etc/utmp" are not removed when screen is
          killed with SIGKILL.  This  will  cause  some  programs
          (like "w" or "rwho") to advertise that a user is logged
          on who really isn't.

       o  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has  no
          utmp entry.

       o  When  the  modem line was hung up, screen may not auto-
          matically detach (or quit) unless the device driver  is
          configured to send a HANGUP signal.  To detach a screen
          session use the -D or -d command line option.

       o  If a password is set, the command line options  -d  and
          -D still detach a session without asking.

       o  Both  "breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype" change the break
          generating method used by  all  terminal  devices.  The
          first  should  change  a window specific setting, where
          the latter should change only the default for new  win-

       o  When  attaching  to  a  multiuser  session,  the user's
          .screenrc file is not  sourced.  Each  user's  personal
          settings have to be included in the .screenrc file from
          which the session is booted, or have to be changed man-

       o  A  weird imagination is most useful to gain full advan-
          tage of all the features.

       o  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money,
          beer & pizza to

                           10 Jun 1999                          1